Lukas Seidel, Qwiet AI; Dominik Maier, TU Berlin; Marius Muench, VU Amsterdam and University of Birmingham
A recent trend for assessing the security of an embedded system’s firmware is rehosting, the art of running the firmware in a virtualized environment, rather than on the original hardware platform. One significant use case for firmware rehosting is fuzzing to dynamically uncover security vulnerabilities.
However, state-of-the-art implementations suffer from high emulator-induced overhead, leading to less-than-optimal execution speeds. Instead of emulation, we propose near-native rehosting: running embedded firmware as a Linux userspace process on a high-performance system that shares the instruction set family with the targeted device. We implement this approach with SAFIREFUZZ, a throughput-optimized rehosting and fuzzing framework for ARM Cortex-M firmware. SAFIREFUZZ takes monolithic binary-only firmware images and uses high-level emulation (HLE) and dynamic binary rewriting to run them on far more powerful hardware with low overhead. By replicating experiments of HALucinator, the state-of-the-art HLE-based rehosting system for binary firmware, we show that SAFIREFUZZ can provide a 690x throughput increase on average during 24-hour fuzzing campaigns while covering up to 30% more basic blocks.
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