A Fast and Flexible Hardware-based Virtualization Mechanism for Computational Storage Devices


Dongup Kwon, Dongryeong Kim, Junehyuk Boo, Wonsik Lee, and Jangwoo Kim, Seoul National University


A computational storage device incorporating a computation unit inside or near its storage unit is a highly promising technology to maximize a storage server's performance. However, to apply such computational storage devices and take their full potential in virtualized environments, server architects must resolve a fundamental challenge: cost-effective virtualization. This critical challenge can be directly addressed by the following questions: (1) how to virtualize two different hardware units (i.e., computation and storage) and (2) how to integrate them to construct virtual computational storage devices, and (3) how to provide them to users. However, the existing methods for computational storage virtualization severely suffer from their low performance and high costs due to the lack of hardware-assisted virtualization support.

In this work, we propose FCSV-Engine, an FPGA card designed to maximize the performance and cost-effectiveness of computational storage virtualization. FCSV-Engine introduces three key ideas to achieve the design goals. First, it achieves high virtualization performance by applying hardware-assisted virtualization to both computation and storage units. Second, it further improves the performance by applying hardware-assisted resource orchestration for the virtualized units. Third, it achieves high cost-effectiveness by dynamically constructing and scheduling virtual computational storage devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to implement a hardware-assisted virtualization mechanism for modern computational storage devices.

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@inproceedings {273951,
author = {Dongup Kwon and Dongryeong Kim and Junehyuk Boo and Wonsik Lee and Jangwoo Kim},
title = {A Fast and Flexible Hardware-based Virtualization Mechanism for Computational Storage Devices},
booktitle = {2021 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 21)},
year = {2021},
isbn = {978-1-939133-23-6},
pages = {729--743},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/atc21/presentation/kwon},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = jul,

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