HECO: Fully Homomorphic Encryption Compiler


Alexander Viand, Patrick Jattke, Miro Haller, and Anwar Hithnawi, ETH Zurich


In recent years, Fully Homomorphic Encryption ( FHE) has undergone several breakthroughs and advancements leading to a leap in performance. Today, performance is no longer a major barrier to adoption. Instead, it is the complexity of developing an efficient FHE application that currently limits deploying FHE in practice and at scale. Several FHE compilers have emerged recently to ease FHE development. However, none of these answer how to automatically transform imperative programs to secure and efficient FHE implementations. This is a fundamental issue that needs to be addressed before we can realistically expect broader use of FHE. Automating these transformations is challenging because the restrictive set of operations in FHE and their non-intuitive performance characteristics require programs to be drastically transformed to achieve efficiency. Moreover, existing tools are monolithic and focus on individual optimizations. Therefore, they fail to fully address the needs of end-to-end FHE development. In this paper, we present HECO, a new end-to-end design for FHE compilers that takes high-level imperative programs and emits efficient and secure FHE implementations. In our design, we take a broader view of FHE development, extending the scope of optimizations beyond the cryptographic challenges existing tools focus on.

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@inproceedings {287380,
author = {Alexander Viand and Patrick Jattke and Miro Haller and Anwar Hithnawi},
title = {{HECO}: Fully Homomorphic Encryption Compiler},
booktitle = {32nd USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 23)},
year = {2023},
isbn = {978-1-939133-37-3},
address = {Anaheim, CA},
pages = {4715--4732},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity23/presentation/viand},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug

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