ReUSB: Replay-Guided USB Driver Fuzzing


Jisoo Jang, Minsuk Kang, and Dokyung Song, Yonsei University


Vulnerabilities in device drivers are constantly threatening the security of OS kernels. USB drivers are particularly concerning due to their widespread use and the wide variety of their attack vectors. Recently, fuzzing has been shown to be effective at finding vulnerabilities in USB drivers. Numerous vulnerabilities in USB drivers have been discovered by existing fuzzers; however, the number of code paths and vulnerabilities found, unfortunately, has stagnated. A key obstacle is the statefulness of USB drivers; that is, most of their code can be covered only when given a specific sequence of inputs.

We observe that record-and-replay defined at the trust boundary of USB drivers directly helps overcoming the obstacle; deep states can be reached by reproducing recorded executions, and, combined with fuzzing, deeper code paths and vulnerabilities can be found. We present ReUSB, a USB driver fuzzer that guides fuzzing along two-dimensional record-and-replay of USB drivers to enhance their fuzzing. We address two fundamental challenges: faithfully replaying USB driver executions, and amplifying the effect of replay in fuzzing. To this end, we first introduce a set of language-level constructs that are essential in faithfully describing concurrent, two-dimensional traces but missing in state-of-the-art kernel fuzzers, and propose time-, concurrency-, and context-aware replay that can reproduce recorded driver executions with high fidelity. We then amplify the effect of our high-fidelity replay by guiding fuzzing along the replay of recorded executions, while mitigating the slowdown and side effects induced by replay via replay checkpointing. We implemented ReUSB, and evaluated it using two-dimensional traces of 10 widely used USB drivers of 3 different classes. The results show that ReUSB can significantly enhance USB driver fuzzing; it improved the code coverage of these drivers by 76% over a strong baseline, and found 15 previously unknown bugs.

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