Amazon DynamoDB: A Scalable, Predictably Performant, and Fully Managed NoSQL Database Service


Mostafa Elhemali, Niall Gallagher, Nicholas Gordon, Joseph Idziorek, Richard Krog, Colin Lazier, Erben Mo, Akhilesh Mritunjai, Somu Perianayagam ,Tim Rath, Swami Sivasubramanian, James Christopher Sorenson III, Sroaj Sosothikul, Doug Terry, Akshat Vig, Amazon Web Services


Amazon DynamoDB is a NoSQL cloud database service that provides consistent performance at any scale. Hundreds of thousands of customers rely on DynamoDB for its fundamental properties: consistent performance, availability, durability, and a fully managed serverless experience. In 2021, during the 66 hour Amazon Prime Day shopping event, Amazon systems including Alexa, the sites, and Amazon fulfillment centers, made trillions of API calls to DynamoDB, peaking at 89.2 million requests per second, while experiencing high availability with single-digit millisecond performance. Since its launch in 2012, DynamoDB's design and implementation have evolved in response to our experiences operating it. The system has successfully dealt with issues related to fairness, traffic imbalance across partitions, monitoring, and automated system operations without impacting availability or performance. Reliability is essential, as even the slightest disruption can significantly impact customers. This paper presents our experience operating DynamoDB at a massive scale and how the architecture continues to evolve to meet the ever-increasing demands of customer workloads.

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@inproceedings {280754,
author = {Mostafa Elhemali and Niall Gallagher and Nick Gordon and Joseph Idziorek and Richard Krog and Colin Lazier and Erben Mo and Akhilesh Mritunjai and Somasundaram Perianayagam and Tim Rath and Swami Sivasubramanian and James Christopher Sorenson III and Sroaj Sosothikul and Doug Terry and Akshat Vig},
title = {Amazon {DynamoDB}: A Scalable, Predictably Performant, and Fully Managed {NoSQL} Database Service},
booktitle = {2022 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 22)},
year = {2022},
isbn = {978-1-939133-29-46},
address = {Carlsbad, CA},
pages = {1037--1048},
url = {},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = jul

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