Zhizhou Zhang, University of California, Santa Barbara; Milind Chabbi and Adam Welc, Uber Technologies; Timothy Sherwood, University of California, Santa Barbara
We present a source-to-source transformation framework, Gocc, that consumes lock-based pessimistic concurrency programs in the Go language and transforms them into optimistic concurrency programs that use Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM). The choice of the Go language is motivated by the fact that concurrency is a first-class citizen in Go, and it is widely used in Go programs. Gocc performs rich inter-procedural program analysis to detect and filter lock-protected regions and performs AST-level code transformation of the surrounding locks when profitable. Profitability is driven by both static analyses of critical sections and dynamic analysis via execution profiles. A custom HTM library, using perceptron, learns concurrency behavior and dynamically decides whether to use HTM in the rewritten lock/unlock points. Given the rich history of transactional memory research but its lack of adoption in any industrial setting, we believe this workflow, which ultimately produces source-code patches, is more apt for industry-scale adoption. Results on widely adopted Go libraries and applications demonstrate significant (up to 10x) and scalable performance gains resulting from our automated transformation while avoiding major performance regressions.
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