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Servers such as file servers, storage servers, and web servers play a critical role in today's distributed, multiple-tier computing environments. In addition to providing clients with key services and maintaining data consistency and integrity, a server usually improves performance by using a large buffer to cache data. For example, both EMC Symmetric Storage Systems and IBM Enterprise Storage Server deploy large software-managed caches to speed up I/O accesses [7,8].

Figure 1 shows two typical scenarios of networked clients and servers. A client can be either an end user program such as a file client (Figure  1a), or a front-tier server such as a database server (Figure  1b). A server buffer cache thus serves as a second level buffer cache in a multi-level caching hierarchy. In order to distinguish server buffer caches from traditional single level buffer caches, we call a server buffer cache a second level buffer cache. In contrast, we call a client cache or a front-tier server cache as a first level buffer cache.

Second level buffer caches have different access pattern from single level buffer caches because accesses to a second level buffer cache are misses from a first level buffer cache. First level buffer caches typically employ an LRU replacement algorithm, so that recently accessed blocks will be kept in the cache. As a result, accesses to a second buffer cache exhibit poorer temporal locality than those to a first level buffer cache; a replacement algorithm such as LRU, which works well for single level buffer caches, may not perform well for second level buffer caches.

Figure 1: Second level buffer caches.
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Muntz and Honeyman [28] investigated multi-level caching in a distributed file system, showing that server caches have poor hit ratios. They concluded that the poor hit ratios are due to poor data sharing among clients. This study did not characterize the behavior of accesses to server buffer caches, but raised the question whether the algorithms that work well for client or single level buffer caches can effectively reduce misses for server caches. Willick, Eager and Bunt have demonstrated that the Frequency Based Replacement (FBR) algorithm performs better for file server caches than locality based replacement algorithms such as LRU, which works well for client caches  [43]. However, several key related questions still remain open.

This paper reports the results of our study of these questions. We first studied second level buffer cache access patterns using four large traces from file servers, disk subsystems and database back-end storage servers. Our analysis shows that a good second level buffer cache replacement algorithm should have three properties: minimal life time, frequency-based priority and temporal frequency. Finally, we introduce a new algorithm called Multi-Queue. Our trace-driven simulation results show that the new algorithm performs better than LRU, MRU, LFU, FBR, LRU-2, LFRU and 2Q, and that it is robust for different workloads and cache sizes. Our result also reveals that the 2Q algorithm, which does not perform as well as others for single level buffer caches, has higher hit ratios than all tested alternatives except Multi-Queue for second level buffer caches.

To further validate our results, we have implemented the Multi-Queue and LRU algorithms on a storage server system with the Oracle 8i Enterprise Server as the client. Our results using the TPC-C benchmark on a 100 GBytes database demonstrate that the Multi-Queue algorithm improves the transaction rate by 8-11% over LRU. To achieve the same improvement with LRU requires doubling the cache size of the storage server.

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Next: Methodology Up: The Multi-Queue Replacement Algorithm Previous: The Multi-Queue Replacement Algorithm
Yuanyuan Zhou