SPEAKE(a)R: Turn Speakers to Microphones for Fun and Profit


Mordechai Guri, Yosef Solewicz, Andrey Daidakulov, and Yuval Elovici, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel


It's possible to manipulate the headphones, earphones, and simple earbuds connected to a computer, silently turning them into a pair of eavesdropping microphones. This paper focuses on the cyber security threat this behavior poses. We introduce 'SPEAKE(a)R,' a new type of espionage malware that can covertly turn the headphones, earphones, or simple earbuds connected to a PC into microphones when a standard microphone is not present, muted, taped, or turned off. We provide technical background at the hardware and OS levels, and explain why most of the motherboards and audio chipsets of today’s PCs are susceptible to this type of attack. We implemented a malware prototype and tested the signal quality. We also performed a series of speech and recording quality measurements and discuss defensive countermeasures. Our results show that by using SPEAKE(a)R, attackers can record human speech of intelligible quality and eavesdrop from nine meters away.

Open Access Media

USENIX is committed to Open Access to the research presented at our events. Papers and proceedings are freely available to everyone once the event begins. Any video, audio, and/or slides that are posted after the event are also free and open to everyone. Support USENIX and our commitment to Open Access.

@inproceedings {206174,
author = {Mordechai Guri and Yosef Solewicz and Andrey Daidakulov and Yuval Elovici},
title = {{SPEAKE(a)R}: Turn Speakers to Microphones for Fun and Profit},
booktitle = {11th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies (WOOT 17)},
year = {2017},
address = {Vancouver, BC},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/woot17/workshop-program/presentation/guri},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug