“If sighted people know, I should be able to know:” Privacy Perceptions of Bystanders with Visual Impairments around Camera-based Technology


Yuhang Zhao, University of Wisconsin—Madison; Yaxing Yao, University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Jiaru Fu and Nihan Zhou, University of Wisconsin—Madison


Camera-based technology can be privacy-invasive, especially for bystanders who can be captured by the cameras but do not have direct control or access to the devices. The privacy threats become even more significant to bystanders with visual impairments (BVI) since they cannot visually discover the use of cameras nearby and effectively avoid being captured. While some prior research has studied visually impaired people's privacy concerns as direct users of camera-based assistive technologies, no research has explored their unique privacy perceptions and needs as bystanders. We conducted an in-depth interview study with 16 visually impaired participants to understand BVI's privacy concerns, expectations, and needs in different camera usage scenarios. A preliminary survey with 90 visually impaired respondents and 96 sighted controls was conducted to compare BVI and sighted bystanders' general attitudes towards cameras and elicit camera usage scenarios for the interview study. Our research revealed BVI's unique privacy challenges and perceptions around cameras, highlighting their needs for privacy awareness and protection. We summarized design considerations for future privacy-enhancing technologies to fulfill BVI's privacy needs.

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@inproceedings {285429,
author = {Yuhang Zhao and Yaxing Yao and Jiaru Fu and Nihan Zhou},
title = {{{\textquotedblleft}If} sighted people know, I should be able to {know:{\textquotedblright}} Privacy Perceptions of Bystanders with Visual Impairments around Camera-based Technology},
booktitle = {32nd USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 23)},
year = {2023},
isbn = {978-1-939133-37-3},
address = {Anaheim, CA},
pages = {4661--4678},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity23/presentation/zhao-yuhang},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug

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