ACon^2: Adaptive Conformal Consensus for Provable Blockchain Oracles


Sangdon Park, Georgia Institute of Technology; Osbert Bastani, University of Pennsylvania; Taesoo Kim, Georgia Institute of Technology


Blockchains with smart contracts are distributed ledger systems that achieve block-state consistency among distributed nodes by only allowing deterministic operations of smart contracts. However, the power of smart contracts is enabled by interacting with stochastic off-chain data, which in turn opens the possibility to undermine the block-state consistency. To address this issue, an oracle smart contract is used to provide a single consistent source of external data; but, simultaneously, this introduces a single point of failure, which is called the oracle problem. To address the oracle problem, we propose an adaptive conformal consensus (ACon2) algorithm that derives a consensus set of data from multiple oracle contracts via the recent advance in online uncertainty quantification learning. Interesting, the consensus set provides a desired correctness guarantee under distribution shift and Byzantine adversaries. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm on two price datasets and an Ethereum case study. In particular, the Solidity implementation of the proposed algorithm shows the potential practicality of the proposed algorithm, implying that online machine learning algorithms are applicable to address security issues in blockchains.

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@inproceedings {287374,
author = {Sangdon Park and Osbert Bastani and Taesoo Kim},
title = {{ACon^2}: Adaptive Conformal Consensus for Provable Blockchain Oracles},
booktitle = {32nd USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 23)},
year = {2023},
isbn = {978-1-939133-37-3},
address = {Anaheim, CA},
pages = {3313--3330},
url = {},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug

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