Origin-sensitive Control Flow Integrity


Mustakimur Rahman Khandaker, Wenqing Liu, Abu Naser, Zhi Wang, and Jie Yang, Florida State University


CFI is an effective, generic defense against control-flow hijacking attacks, especially for C/C++ programs. However, most previous CFI systems have poor security as demonstrated by their large equivalence class (EC) sizes. An EC is a set of targets that are indistinguishable from each other in the CFI policy; i.e., an attacker can "bend"' the control flow within an EC without being detected. As such, the large ECs denote the weakest link in a CFI system and should be broken down in order to improve security.

An approach to improve the security of CFI is to use contextual information, such as the last branches taken, to refine the CFI policy, the so-called context-sensitive CFI. However, contexts based on the recent execution history are often inadequate in breaking down large ECs due to the limited number of incoming execution paths to an indirect control transfer instruction (ICT).

In this paper, we propose a new context for CFI, origin sensitivity, that can effectively break down large ECs and reduce the average and largest EC size. Origin-sensitive CFI (OS-CFI) takes the origin of the code pointer called by an ICT as the context and constrains the targets of the ICT with this context. It supports both C-style indirect calls and C++ virtual calls. Additionally, we leverage common hardware features in the commodity Intel processors (MPX and TSX) to improve both security and performance of OS-CFI. Our evaluation shows that OS-CFI can substantially reduce the largest and average EC sizes (by 98% in some cases) and has strong performance -- 7.6% overhead on average for all C/C++ benchmarks of SPEC CPU2006 and NGINX.

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