"I have no idea what they're trying to accomplish:" Enthusiastic and Casual Signal Users' Understanding of Signal PINs


Daniel V. Bailey and Philipp Markert, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany; Adam J. Aviv, The George Washington University


We conducted an online study with n = 235 Signal users on their understanding, and usage of PINs in Signal. In our study, we observe a split in PIN management and composition strategies between users who can explain the purpose of the Signal PINs (56%; enthusiasts) and users who cannot (44%; casual users). Encouraging adoption of PINs by Signal appears quite successful: only 14% opted-out of setting a PIN entirely. Among those who did set a PIN, most enthusiasts had long, complex alphanumeric PINs generated by and saved in a password manager. Meanwhile more casual Signal users mostly relied on short numeric-only PINs. Our results suggest that better communication about the purpose of the Signal PIN could help more casual users understand the features PINs enable (such as that it is not simply a personal identification number). This communication could encourage a stronger security posture.

SOUPS 2021 Open Access Videos Sponsored by

Open Access Media

USENIX is committed to Open Access to the research presented at our events. Papers and proceedings are freely available to everyone once the event begins. Any video, audio, and/or slides that are posted after the event are also free and open to everyone. Support USENIX and our commitment to Open Access.

@inproceedings {274455,
author = {Daniel V. Bailey and Philipp Markert and Adam J. Aviv},
title = {"I have no idea what they{\textquoteright}re trying to {accomplish:}" Enthusiastic and Casual Signal Users{\textquoteright} Understanding of Signal {PINs}},
booktitle = {Seventeenth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS 2021)},
year = {2021},
isbn = {978-1-939133-25-0},
pages = {417--436},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/soups2021/presentation/bailey},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug

Presentation Video