Jawa: Web Archival in the Era of JavaScript


Ayush Goel and Jingyuan Zhu, University of Michigan; Ravi Netravali, Princeton University; Harsha V. Madhyastha, University of Michigan


By repeatedly crawling and saving web pages over time, web archives (such as the Internet Archive) enable users to visit historical versions of any page. In this paper, we point out that existing web archives are not well designed to cope with the widespread presence of JavaScript on the web. Some archives store petabytes of JavaScript code, and yet many pages render incorrectly when users load them. Other archives which store the end-state of page loads (e.g., screen captures) break post-load interactions implemented in JavaScript.

To address these problems, we present Jawa, a new design for web archives which significantly reduces the storage necessary to save modern web pages while also improving the fidelity with which archived pages are served. Key to enabling Jawa’s use at scale are our observations on a) the forms of non-determinism which impair the execution of JavaScript on archived pages, and b) the ways in which JavaScript’s execution fundamentally differs between live web pages and their archived copies. On a corpus of 1 million archived pages, Jawa reduces overall storage needs by 41%, when compared to the techniques currently used by the Internet Archive.

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@inproceedings {280888,
author = {Ayush Goel and Jingyuan Zhu and Ravi Netravali and Harsha V. Madhyastha},
title = {Jawa: Web Archival in the Era of {JavaScript}},
booktitle = {16th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 22)},
year = {2022},
isbn = {978-1-939133-28-1},
address = {Carlsbad, CA},
pages = {805--820},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/osdi22/presentation/goel},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = jul

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