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Optimizing Every Operation in a Write-optimized File System
Jun Yuan, Yang Zhan, William Jannen, Prashant Pandey, Amogh Akshintala, Kanchan Chandnani, and Pooja Deo, Stony Brook University; Zardosht Kasheff, Facebook; Leif Walsh, Two Sigma; Michael A. Bender, Stony Brook University; Martin Farach-Colton, Rutgers University; Rob Johnson, Stony Brook University; Bradley C. Kuszmaul, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Donald E. Porter, Stony Brook University
Awarded Best Paper!
File systems that employ write-optimized dictionaries (WODs) can perform random-writes, metadata updates, and recursive directory traversals orders of magnitude faster than conventional file systems. However, previous WOD-based file systems have not obtained all of these performance gains without sacrificing performance on other operations, such as file deletion, file or directory renaming, or sequential writes.
Using three techniques, late-binding journaling, zoning, and range deletion, we show that there is no fundamental trade-off in write-optimization. These dramatic improvements can be retained while matching conventional file systems on all other operations.
BetrFS 0.2 delivers order-of-magnitude better performance than conventional file systems on directory scans and small random writes and matches the performance of conventional file systems on rename, delete, and sequential I/O. For example, BetrFS 0.2 performs directory scans 2.2x faster, and small random writes over two orders of magnitude faster, than the fastest conventional file system. But unlike BetrFS 0.1, it renames and deletes
files commensurate with conventional file systems and performs large sequential I/O at nearly disk bandwidth. The performance benefits of these techniques extend to applications as well. BetrFS 0.2 continues to outperform
conventional file systems on many applications, such as as
tar, but improves git-clone performance by 35% over BetrFS 0.1, yielding performance comparable to other file systems.
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