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Avoiding the Disk Bottleneck in the Data Domain Deduplication File System
Disk-based deduplication storage has emerged as the new-generation storage system for enterprise data protection to replace tape libraries. Deduplication removes redundant data segments to compress data into a highly compact form and makes it economical to store backups on disk instead of tape. A crucial requirement for enterprise data protection is high throughput, typically over 100 MB/sec, which enables backups to complete quickly. A significant challenge is to identify and eliminate duplicate data segments at this rate on a low-cost system that cannot afford enough RAM to store an index of the stored segments and may be forced to access an on-disk index for every input segment.
This paper describes three techniques employed in the production Data Domain deduplication file system to relieve the disk bottleneck. These techniques include: (1) the Summary Vector, a compact in-memory data structure for identifying new segments; (2) Stream-Informed Segment Layout, a data layout method to improve on-disk locality for sequentially accessed segments; and (3) Locality Preserved Caching, which maintains the locality of the fingerprints of duplicate segments to achieve high cache hit ratios. Together, they can remove 99% of the disk accesses for deduplication of real world workloads. These techniques enable a modern two-socket dual-core system to run at 90% CPU utilization with only one shelf of 15 disks and achieve 100 MB/sec for single-stream throughput and 210 MB/sec for multi-stream throughput.
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