A Decentralized Blockchain with High Throughput and Fast Confirmation


Chenxing Li, Peilun Li, and Dong Zhou, Tsinghua University; Zhe Yang, Ming Wu, and Guang Yang, Conflux Foundation; Wei Xu, Tsinghua University; Fan Long, University of Toronto and Conflux Foundation; Andrew Chi-Chih Yao, Tsinghua University


This paper presents Conflux, a scalable and decentralized blockchain system with high throughput and fast confirmation. Conflux operates with a novel consensus protocol which optimistically processes concurrent blocks without discarding any as forks and adaptively assigns weights to blocks based on their topologies in the Conflux ledger structure (called Tree-Graph). The adaptive weight mechanism enables Conflux to detect and thwart liveness attack by automatically switching between an optimistic strategy for fast confirmation in normal scenarios and a conservative strategy to ensure consensus progress during liveness attacks. We evaluated Conflux on Amazon EC2 clusters with up to 12k full nodes. The consensus protocol of Conflux achieves a block throughput of 9.6Mbps with 20Mbps network bandwidth limit per node. On a combined workload of payment transactions and Ethereum history transactions, the end-to-end system of Conflux achieves the throughput of up to 3480 transactions per second while confirming transactions under one minute.

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@inproceedings {254398,
author = {Chenxing Li and Peilun Li and Dong Zhou and Zhe Yang and Ming Wu and Guang Yang and Wei Xu and Fan Long and Andrew Chi-Chih Yao},
title = {A Decentralized Blockchain with High Throughput and Fast Confirmation},
booktitle = {2020 {USENIX} Annual Technical Conference ({USENIX} {ATC} 20)},
year = {2020},
isbn = {978-1-939133-14-4},
pages = {515--528},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/atc20/presentation/li-chenxing},
publisher = {{USENIX} Association},
month = jul,

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