On Smart Query Routing: For Distributed Graph Querying with Decoupled Storage

Authors: 

Arijit Khan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Gustavo Segovia, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Donald Kossmann, Microsoft Research, Redmond, USA

Abstract: 

We study online graph queries that retrieve nearby nodes of a query node in a large network. To answer such queries with high throughput and low latency, we partition the graph and process in parallel across a cluster of servers. Existing distributed graph systems place each partition on a separate server, where query answering over that partition takes place. This design has two major disadvantages. First, the router maintains a fixed routing table (or, policy), thus less flexible for query routing, fault tolerance, and graph updates. Second, the graph must be partitioned so that the workload across servers is balanced, and the inter machine communication is minimized. To maintain good-quality partitions, it is also required to update the existing partitions based on workload changes. However, graph partitioning, online monitoring of workloads, and dynamically updating the partitions are expensive.

We mitigate these problems by decoupling graph storage from query processors, and by developing smart routing strategies with graph landmarks and embedding. Since a query processor is no longer assigned any fixed part of the graph, it is equally capable of handling any request, thus facilitating load balancing and fault tolerance. Moreover, due to our smart routing strategies, query processors can effectively leverage their cache, reducing the impact of how the graph is partitioned across storage servers. Our experiments with several real-world, large graphs demonstrate that the proposed framework gRouting, even with simple hash partitioning, achieves up to an order of magnitude better query throughput compared to existing distributed graph systems that employ expensive graph partitioning and re-partitioning strategies.

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BibTeX
@inproceedings {216001,
author = {Arijit Khan and Gustavo Segovia and Donald Kossmann},
title = {On Smart Query Routing: For Distributed Graph Querying with Decoupled Storage},
booktitle = {2018 {USENIX} Annual Technical Conference ({USENIX} {ATC} 18)},
year = {2018},
isbn = {978-1-939133-01-4},
address = {Boston, MA},
pages = {401--412},
url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/atc18/presentation/khan},
publisher = {{USENIX} Association},
month = jul,
}

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