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Speculative execution

The speculative execution approach exploits the increasing abundance of spare processing cycles to automate prefetching for applications that stall on disk I/O. Usually, when an application needs some data that is not in memory, it will issue a disk request and then stall waiting for that request to complete. Rather than simply wasting unused processing cycles while applications are stalled on I/O, the speculative execution approach uses these cycles to try to discover and initiate prefetching for the future data needs of stalled applications by running ahead of their stalled executions. In particular, the approach assumes that this speculative pre-execution of the application's code will be sufficiently similar to the application's future normal (non-speculative) execution that it will encounter the same accesses to non-resident data. Based on this assumption, speculative execution attempts to improve the application's subsequent performance by converting any such accesses to prefetches.

Figure 1 illustrates how this approach could deliver substantial performance improvements for a hypothetical application that accesses four non-resident data pages spread across three disks. For simplicity, assume that the application executes for one million cycles between each such access, and that a disk can service a request in three million cycles. When this application is executed, its execution will ordinarily alternate between processing and stalling on I/O. If the speculative execution approach were applied then, when normal execution stalls on its first I/O request, execution would continue speculatively. Whenever speculative execution encounters an access to non-resident data, it will instead issue a non-blocking prefetch call. In this manner, it may be able to initiate prefetching for all of the application's subsequent data accesses. When the original disk request completes, normal execution will resume. Now, however, its subsequent data accesses will be serviced out of main memory, halving the application's execution time.

Figure 1: Example illustrating how the speculative execution approach could reduce I/O stall time. (A) shows how execution would ordinarily proceed for a hypothetical application. (B) shows how execution might proceed for the application with the speculative execution approach. While normal execution is stalled on its first I/O request, speculative execution may be able to initiate prefetching for all the non-resident data that the application will access in the future. This could halve the application's execution time.

It is worth noting that speculative execution will not be effective in all cases. For example, it will offer no benefit on systems where CPU, memory or disk are already fully utilized. Also, a speculative process will incorrectly predict future accesses if they depend on non-resident data. However, our success in applying speculative execution to a wide range of benchmark applications indicates that independent I/O accesses are common.

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Next: Experimental setup Up: Operating System I/O Speculation: Previous: Introduction