Second USENIX Workshop on Electronic Commerce
Token-Mediated Certification and Electronic Commerce
Daniel E. Geer, Jr., Sc.D., Donald T. Davis
Open Market, Inc.
Public key technology presumes the availability of certificates and
certifying authorities (CAs) living within a shallow hierarchy rooted
at a few (n<<100) public CAs. We propose an alternative that lessens
the day-to-day dependence on centralized CAs while deepening the
certificate tree. We do this by suggesting that smartcards provide CA
functions, thus re-framing some payment problems as simpler
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