In this section we give some background on the two technologies that are basic to understanding this paper: the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and the Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM).
The TPM is a security specification defined by the Trusted Computing Group . Its implementation is available as a chip that is physically attached to a platform's motherboard and controlled by software running on the system using well-defined commands . It provides cryptographic operations such as asymmetric key generation, decryption, encryption, signing and migration of keys between TPMs, as well as random number generation and hashing. It also provides secure storage for small amounts of information such as cryptographic keys. Because the TPM is implemented in hardware and presents a carefully designed interface, it is resistant to software attacks .
Of particular interest is the Platform Configuration Register (PCR) extension operation. PCRs are initialized at power up and can only be modified by reset or extension. The PCR extension function cryptographically updates a PCR using the following function:
The cryptographic properties of the extension operation state that it is infeasible to reach a certain PCR state through two different sequences of values. SHA1 refers to the Secure Hash Algorithm standard . The operation represents a concatenation of two byte arrays.
PCR extensions are used during the platform boot process and start within early-executed code in the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) that is referred to as the Core Root of Trust for Measurement (CRTM) . Hash values of byte arrays representing code or configuration data are calculated, or measured, and PCRs are extended with these values. A final PCR value represents this accumulation of a unique sequence of measurements. Along with a sequential list of individual measurements and applications' names and information about measured configuration data, PCR values are used to decide whether a system can be trusted. A transitive trust model is implemented that hands off the measuring from the BIOS  to the boot loader  and finally to the operating system. Procedures have also been developed for operating systems to measure launched applications, scripts and configuration files .
Besides the aforementioned cryptographic operations it is possible to seal information against the state of the TPM, where its state is represented through a subset of PCRs. Sealed information is encrypted with a public key and can only be decrypted if the selected PCRs are in the exact state that they were at the time of sealing.
There are a number of signing keys associated with a TPM. Each TPM can be identified by a unique built-in key, the Endorsement Key (EK), which stands for the validity of the TPM . The device manufacturer should provide a certificate for the EK. Related to the EK are Attestation Identity Keys (AIKs). An AIK is created by the TPM and linked to the local platform through a certificate for that AIK. This certificate is created and signed by a certificate authority (CA). In particular, a privacy CA allows a platform to present different AIKs to different remote parties, so that it is impossible for these parties to determine that the AIKs are coming from the same platform. AIKs are primarily used during quote operations to provide a signature over a subset of PCRs as well as a 160-bit nonce. Quotes are delivered to remote parties to enable them to verify properties of the platform.
VMMs , also known as hypervisors, allow multiple operating systems to simultaneously run on one machine. A VMM is a software layer underneath the operating system that meets two basic requirements:
The basic responsibility of a VMM is to provide CPU time, memory and interrupts to each VM. It needs to set up the page tables and memory management unit of the CPU such that each VM runs in its own isolated sandbox. The hypervisor itself remains in full control over the resources given to a VM. During the boot process of a VMM, often an initial virtual machine is started that serves as a management system for starting further virtual machines.
Depending on the fidelity of the emulation of a physical machine, it may be necessary to make modifications to an operating system for it to run on a VMM. If modifications are required the environment is said to be paravirtualized, otherwise the VMM is said to provide a fully virtualized environment.