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Description of the AODV Protocol

AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector)[7] is a loop-free routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. It is designed to be self-starting in an environment of mobile nodes, withstanding a variety of network behaviors such as node mobility, link failures and packet losses. This section describes the AODV protocol in brief; the reader is referred to [7] for complete details of the protocol.

At each node, AODV maintains a routing table. The routing table entry for a destination contains three essential fields: a next hop node, a sequence number and a hop count. All packets destined to the destination are sent to the next hop node. The sequence number acts as a form of time-stamping, and is a measure of the freshness of a route. The hop count represents the current distance to the destination node.

Suppose we have two nodes $a$ and $b$ such that $b$ is the next hop of $a$ to some destination $d$. Also, suppose the sequence number and hop count of the routes to $d$ at $a$ and $b$ are $(seq_a, hcnt_a)$ and $(seq_b, hcnt_b)$ respectively. Then the AODV protocol maintains the following property at all times:

\begin{displaymath}(seq_a < seq_b) \vee (seq_a = seq_b \wedge hcnt_a > hcnt_b) \end{displaymath}

In other words, $b$ either has a newer route to $d$ than $a$, or $b$ has a shorter route that is equally recent. Under this partial order constraint, the protocol is guaranteed to be free of routing loops [2].

In AODV, nodes discover routes in request-response cycles. A node requests a route to a destination by broadcasting an RREQ message to all its neighbors. When a node receives an RREQ message but does not have a route to the requested destination, it in turn broadcasts the RREQ message. Also, it remembers a reverse-route to the requesting node which can be used to forward subsequent responses to this RREQ. This process repeats until the RREQ reaches a node that has a valid route to the destination. This node (which can be the destination itself) responds with an RREP message. This RREP is unicast along the reverse-routes of the intermediate nodes until it reaches the original requesting node. Thus, at the end of this request-response cycle a bidirectional route is established between the requesting node and the destination. When a node loses connectivity to its next hop, the node invalidates its route by sending an RERR to all nodes that potentially received its RREP.

On receipt of the three AODV messages: RREQ, RREP and RERR, the nodes update the next hop, sequence number and the hop counts of their routes in such a way as to satisfy the partial order constraint mentioned above [7].

next up previous
Next: The AODV model Up: CMC: A Pragmatic Approach Previous: Handling State Space Explosion
Madanlal Musuvathi 2002-10-08