For model checkers, memory is more critical a resource than time. During model checking, most of the memory is consumed by the hash table containing the states visited and the queue of states whose successors are yet to be generated.
CMC uses hash compaction  to reduce the memory requirements in the hash table by several orders of magnitude. For each state, CMC computes a small signature (usually four to eight bytes). Instead of storing the entire state, which can be on the order of kilobytes, its signature is stored in the hash table. Compacting states can lead to conflicts in the hash table where two different states compute to the same signature. However, for state spaces on the order of hundred million states with practical hash table sizes of several hundred megabytes, the probability of missing even a single state due to a signature conflict can be reduced to or lower .
The states in the queue cannot be compacted because all the information in them is needed to compute successor states. However, the queue has good locality of reference, so much of it can be swapped to disk during model checking. Moreover, successive states in the queue usually have a lot of commonality and can thus be compressed. For instance, every transition in CMC changes at most one process state; therefore, it is sufficient to store only this difference when generating a successor state.
Standardizing Data Structures: CMC, by default, interprets states as streams of bits. However, two equivalent data structures in memory might have different representations. For example, if two states differ only in the order in which objects were allocated on the heap, they should be considered effectively the same. CMC can automatically transform states by deterministically traversing pointer data structures, arranging objects in the heap by the order they are visited. The signature for the transformed state can then be saved in the state table. This process could be performed simultaneously with the mark-and-sweep algorithm used to detect memory leaks. A mostly automatic tool for this traversal is under development using the MC framework . For the case study discussed in Section 5, the traversal code was written manually.
There may be additional equivalences between states that depend on the particular use of data structures in a program. For example, when an implementation uses a linked list to store an unordered collection of objects, the behavior of the implementation is independent of the order of objects in the list. In this case, the user can provide a function to sort the list before the automatic standardization transformations are applied.
Finally, some of the most effective reductions in the state space are achieved through methods that risk missing some errors for the benefit of catching the remaining ones more efficiently.
Down-scaling: One obvious approach is to reduce the scale of the system being described . In figure 1, for instance, the model might restrict the number of routing nodes in the network to, say, three or four. Hard-to-find bugs usually involve complex interactions among a small number of processes, and are therefore preserved even after down-scaling. Of course, this may miss bugs that only occur for larger instances of the system.
Abstraction of States: In addition to standardizing distinct but equivalent states, it is also possible to eliminate information that the user judges to be unimportant for the properties checked. This abstraction process is done by ignoring certain memory locations when computing the hash signature of the state. By abstracting states, it is possible to miss errors. However, as the abstraction is done during the hash computation, and not on the actual (concrete) state, this does not produce any false positives.
Heuristics: When exhaustive checking of the entire state space is infeasible and all else fails, CMC can act as an automated testing framework whereby a large number of scenarios can be checked intelligently. The mere fact that CMC is able to cache states already prevents redundant simulations. The goal, however, is to exercise as many interesting scenarios as possible before memory is exhausted.
To that end, we have done some preliminary work in using heuristics to prioritize the state space search. The first class of heuristics involves dropping states altogether if they are deemed uninteresting. The second class of heuristics involves exploring more interesting states first using best-first search. CMC contains a module to monitor state variables to keep a history of which state bits have changed during checking. The basic idea is that if the number of bit positions that have changed since the initial state suddenly increases or if variables take on less frequented values, the state is considered more interesting and explored earlier. This heuristic tends to bias the search toward cases where outliers occur or where states seem to diverge from the norm. This idea was adapted from DIDUCE , a tool that flags such divergent cases and reports them to the user during program testing.
Preliminary results indicate that all the errors discovered with the use of the heuristics could be discovered with simple depth-first search. But, the use of heuristics often accelerated the discovery of errors and produced shorter examples of executions leading to a given error. However, much more experimentation with various heuristics is needed on a wider range of protocols to arrive at reliable conclusions.
The next three sections describe the application and results of using CMC to check three AODV protocol implementations.