Check out the new USENIX Web site.
USENIX, The Advanced Computing Systems Association

4th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation

Pp. 101114 of the Proceedings

S4: Small State and Small Stretch Routing Protocol for Large Wireless Sensor Networks

Yun Mao, University of Pennsylvania; Feng Wang, Lili Qiu, and Simon S. Lam, The University of Texas at Austin; Jonathan M. Smith, University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks must address the challenges of reliable packet delivery at increasingly large scale and highly constrained node resources. Attempts to limit node state can result in undesirable worst-case routing performance, as measured by stretch, which is the ratio of the hop count of the selected path to that of the optimal path.

We present a new routing protocol, Small State and Small Stretch (S4),which jointly minimizes the state and stretch. S4 uses a combination of beacon distance-vector based global routing state and scoped distance-vector based local routing state to achieve a worst-case stretch of 3 using O(√N) routing state per node in an N-node network. Its average routing stretch is close to 1. S4 further incorporates local failure recovery to achieve resilience to dynamic topology changes. We use multiple simulation environments to assess performance claims at scale, and use experiments in a 42-node wireless sensor network testbed to evaluate performance under realistic RF and failure dynamics. The results show that S4 achieves scalability, efficiency, and resilience in a wide range of scenarios.

  • View the full text of this paper in HTML and PDF. Listen to the presentation in MP3 format.
    Click here if you have forgotten your password Until April 2008, you will need your USENIX membership identification in order to access the full papers. The Proceedings are published as a collective work, 2007 by the USENIX Association. All Rights Reserved. Rights to individual papers remain with the author or the author's employer. Permission is granted for the noncommercial reproduction of the complete work for educational or research purposes. USENIX acknowledges all trademarks within this paper.
Join Now! To become a USENIX member, please see our Membership Information.
Last changed: 29 May 2007 ac