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Results: Multicast-based Soft Handoffs

Figure: TCP throughput received by the MH as the handoff frequency increases. The vertical error bars show the standard deviations of the receiver throughput.

In this experiment, we perform TCP bulk transfers from the CH to the MH. The MH resides in a 10 Mbps Ethernet, and the CH and the $i3$server reside in a 100 Mbps Ethernet. The MH initiates TCP connections from one location on its subnet, and moves to another location on the same subnet at a later point, or vice versa. Both MH locations use identical connections with 10Mbps links. The purpose of this simple configuration is to expose the performance impact of multicast-based soft handoffs. Each run involved a TCP bulk transfer lasting 16 seconds and we varied the number of handoffs (0, 1, 2, and 4) performed during each transfer. This was repeated ten times at each handoff frequency. Figure 14 plots TCP throughput and its standard deviation received by MH as the number of handoffs increases during the bulk transfer.

We see that as handoff frequency increases, the TCP throughput degradation is minimal. In fact, there are no losses across the multicast-based soft handoffs as both interfaces are available. The slight performance penalty is caused by the overhead of MD5 digest computation of every packet received and detection of duplicates during handoffs. This demonstrates the effectiveness of ROAM to support rapid handoffs. For example, consider a user on an airplane moving at 540 miles per hour, and cell coverage sizes with diameters of 1.5 miles. In this case, the user makes 6 cell crossings per minute, which can be easily supported by ROAM. To support multiple such users on the airplane, we can use a NAT-like device to aggregate cell-crossings made by users, and thereby alleviate the handoff load on the $i3$trigger server.

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Next: Results: Cold Switch Up: Experiments Previous: Experiments
Shelley Zhuang 2003-03-03