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NSDI '06 Paper    [NSDI '06 Technical Program]

Practical Data-Centric Storage

Cheng Tien Ee - UC Berkeley
Sylvia Ratnasamy - Intel Research, Berkeley
Scott Shenker - ICSI & UC Berkeley

Abstract:

Most data retrieval mechanisms in wireless sensor networks adopt a data-centric approach, in which data is identified directly by name rather than through the location of the node on which it is stored. Initial data-centric methods, such as directed diffusion and TinyDB/TAG, focused on the conveyance of data. One of the advantages of these algorithms is that they do not require point-to-point routing, which has proved to be difficult and costly to implement in wireless sensor networks, and instead require only the simpler and more robust tree-construction primitives.

Some recent data retrieval proposals have extended the data-centric paradigm to storage. Data-centric storage uses in-network placement of data to increase the efficiency of data retrieval in certain circumstances. Unfortunately, all such proposals have been based on point-to-point routing, and therefore have faced a significant deployment barrier.

In this paper we hope to make data-centric storage more practical by removing the need for point-to-point routing. To that end, we propose pathDCS, an approach to data-centric storage that requires only standard tree construction algorithms, a primitive already available in many real-world deployments. We describe the design and implementation of pathDCS and evaluate its performance through both high-level and packet-level simulations, as well as through experiments on a sensor testbed.

1. Introduction

Deployments of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in recent years have grown steadily in their functionality and scale [25,31,1,13,3,18,34], but they still operate under extreme energy constraints. Hence, the ability to efficiently extract relevant data from within the WSN remains paramount. In their seminal paper [6], Estrin et al. argue that efficient data-retrieval in WSNs requires a paradigmatic shift from the Internet's node-centric style, in which the basic communication abstraction is point-to-point (or multipoint) delivery, to a data-centric approach in which query and communication primitives refer to the names of sensed data rather than the identity (e.g., network address) of the sensing node.

The first generation of data-centric methods addressed the conveyance of data through the network. Directed diffusion [14], the first such proposal, determined data routes (and rates) based on reinforcement feedback from upstream nodes, resulting in tree-like data paths from the various sensing nodes to the base station (by which we mean the source of queries). A later method, TinyDB/TAG [23,24], explicitly constructs a delivery tree and then performs various forms of data manipulation as the data is conveyed to the base station.

A later generation of data-centric methods, inspired by the use of Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) in the Internet, has focused on the storage rather than the conveyance of data. These solutions use intelligent in-network storage to make data retrieval more efficient. In data-centric storage, sensed data are stored, by name, within the network. All data with the same name are stored at a single node, so queries can be routed directly (rather than flooded) to the node that stores the desired data. Data-centric storage (DCS) can be used to support a variety of sophisticated query primitives such as multidimensional range queries [22,11], multi-resolution queries [10], and approximate queries [12]. However, there has yet been any deployment in sensornets, though there are multiple scenarios in which they will be useful. For instance, we can imagine a sensor network deployed in a safari, monitoring the location of the various animals. Rather than querying each node to determine if it has seen an elephant, we can instead query a single node that is responsible for all elephant sightings.

These two classes of methods, data-centric conveyance and data-centric storage, have very different performance characteristics in terms of the energy expended to get the desired data. As discussed in [30] for the simplest cases of data-centric conveyance and storage, their relative performance depends on the nature of the data generation, the query rate, the network size, and many other factors.

More to the point of this paper, these two classes of methods require very different communication primitives from the network. The various data-centric conveyance methods rely (either implicitly or explicitly) on tree-construction techniques. Note that even the simplest method of data conveyance, whereby all data are proactively sent to the base station immediately upon generation, also relies on a spanning delivery tree. Tree-based routing is both algorithmically simple and practically robust, leading to its adoption in a number of real-world deployments. For example, simple proactive data delivery was used in the deployments on Great Duck Island [25,31] and Intel's fabrication unit [3], while TinyDB is used in the deployments at the UCB botanical gardens [18].

In contrast, all known data-centric storage methods rely on a point-to-point routing primitive: they deterministically map the name (say x) of a data item to the routable address (say i) associated with a particular node. Node i is then responsible for storing all data named x and all queries for x are routed directly to node i, thereby requiring point-to-point routing.

However, as we review in the following section, achieving scalable and practical point-to-point routing is a difficult challenge. While a number of recent research efforts [27,28,17,20,11,8] have made significant progress towards this end, point-to-point routing still requires significantly more overhead and complexity than tree construction as we will explain in the following section, and has yet to be used in real-life deployments. It thus seems unwise to couple data-centric storage to such a burdensome underlying primitive, particularly one that is not widely deployed. If data-centric storage is to become more widely used, it should rely only on currently available, and easily implementable, communication primitives.

Our goal is not merely to find a better algorithm for data-centric storage. More fundamentally, we hope to make data-centric storage a basic primitive available to WSN applications, and we recognize that this can only happen if data-centric storage is implemented with minimal assumptions about the underlying infrastructure.

To that end, this paper proposes a data-centric storage method called pathDCS that uses only tree-based communication primitives. The design relies on associating data names with paths, not nodes, and these paths are derived from a collection of trees. We investigate some basic performance issues, such as load balance, through high level simulation but for a more real-world evaluation we implemented pathDCS in TinyOS and report on its performance in packet-level TOSSIM[21] simulations as well as in experiments on a mote testbed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of a working prototype of data-centric storage. Our results show that pathDCS achieves high query success rates (on our 100-node testbed, we see roughly a 97% success rate) and is robust to node and network dynamics.

Finally, we note that in this paper we only consider the basic exact-match storage primitives as explored by schemes such as GHT [29] and GEM [27]. We leave for future work its possible extension to supporting the more complex query primitives from the literature [22,12,10,9].

2. Background

The value of pathDCS relies on four basic points:

  1. Data-centric storage is a valuable paradigm in WSNs.

  2. Current data-centric storage techniques rely on point-to-point routing.

  3. Point-to-point routing is difficult, and imposes significant overhead on WSNs.

  4. pathDCS provides a scalable and robust implementation of data-centric storage that does not require point-to-point routing.

The bulk of this paper is devoted to demonstrating the fourth point. In this section, we briefly review the literature supporting the first three.

Point # 1

Data-centric storage (DCS) was first explicitly proposed in [30]. Analysis of a simple model identified scenarios in which DCS outperforms the other data retrieval approaches, namely external storage (in which all sensed data is proactively sent to the base station) and data-centric routing (in which queries are flooded and only relevant data are transmitted to the base station). This same analysis also identified scenarios where the other two methods outperformed DCS. Thus, DCS and other techniques should be seen as complementary, not competitive; our assumption is that DCS is a valuable method of data retrieval in some but not all circumstances.

Reference [30] presented only the simplest form of data-centric storage: an exact-match query-by-name service where the named data can be directly retrieved. A number of subsequent proposals extend the idea of data-centric storage to support more complex queries such as multi-dimensional range queries [22,11], multi-resolution indexing [10] and spatially distributed quadtree-like indices [12].

Point # 2

Data-centric storage requires a hash-like interface where data (or data structures) can be stored and retrieved by name. In all the above proposals, this is achieved by deterministically mapping (typically by hashing) a data name to a geographic location within the network. The node geographically closest to the hashed location is deemed responsible for storing information associated with the hashed name; geographic point-to-point routing is then used to reach this storage node.

While elegant in structure, this approach requires that nodes know the network's external geographic boundary so that names are mapped to geographic locations within the network. If they don't, most data will end up stored by edge nodes, after an extensive perimeter walk, resulting in uneven load and inefficient operation. The various proposals acknowledge, but do not address, this challenge.

Point # 3

The original geographic routing algorithms such as GPSR (see [2,16,19]) were designed for unit-disc connectivity graphs under which a node hears transmissions from another node if and only if they are within a fixed radio range. (This assumption is crucial for the perimeter walk phase, but is not needed for the greedy phase of geographic routing.) Measurements have shown that this assumption is grossly violated by real radios [33,35,8] and that geographic routing breaks down in such cases [17].

In recent work, Kim et al. [17] and Leong et al. [20] proposed extensions to GPSR that removes the need for the unit-disc assumption. CLDP [17] represents a fundamental breakthrough in that it guarantees correct operation over topologies with even arbitrary connectivity. GDSTR [20] on the other hand routes on spanning trees when greedy forwarding is unable to make progress. In both cases additional complexity and overhead is required.

An even more basic assumption underlying geographic routing is that each node knows its geographic coordinates. While some sensor nodes are equipped with GPS, the widely-used Berkeley mote is not: although other localization techniques do exist, none of them have been evaluated for their potential to serve as routing coordinates. Motivated by this challenge, GEM [27] and NoGeo [28] explore the construction of virtual coordinate systems; these are synthetic coordinates to which geographic routing can be applied. Like CLDP, GEM and NoGeo represent significant conceptual advances but come at the cost of increased complexity. NoGeo requires O(N) per-node state during initialization while GEM can incur significant overhead under node and network dynamics.

Finally, there are a number of proposals for point-to-point routing in the literature on ad-hoc wireless networks. Many of these solutions face scalability problems when applied to wireless sensor networks and are thus unlikely to serve as a substrate for DCS. We refer the reader to [8] for a more detailed discussion of the space of point-to-point routing algorithms and their applicability to WSNs.

As the above discussion reveals, there has been significant progress on point-to-point routing for WSNs and both BVR and CLDP have resulted in working implementations for the mote platform. At the same time, the various solutions remain fairly complex (at least relative to tree construction) and face further challenges in supporting in-network storage. For these reasons, we deemed it worthwhile to explore an alternate approach that releases DCS from the challenges and complexities of point-to-point routing.

3. Design

We begin this section with the description of the core pathDCS algorithm, followed by those of supporting ones.

3.1 Core Algorithm

For pathDCS to be effective, it must be consistent: that is, all queries and stores for the same object (no matter from where they are issued) must reach the same destination. The traditional way to ensure consistency is to give all nodes a shared frame of reference that allows packets to describe their destination and enables forwarding nodes to route packets to that destination. We use a few shared points of reference called landmarks (places with well-known names that all nodes can reach), and name locations by their path from one of these shared points of reference [32]. For example, when giving driving directions (in real life) we often use a well-known landmark and then provide path-based instructions: ``Go to the gas station, and then take your first right, and then after two blocks take a left...." The driver need only know (a) how to find the landmarks and (b) how to follow a set of procedural directions. This is the approach used in pathDCS. We map each name to a path, not a node, and that path is defined by an initial landmark and a set of procedural directions that are defined in terms of other landmarks. To query or store that name, a packet goes to the designated landmark and then follows a set of procedural directions; the store or query is then executed at the node on which the path ends. Notice that the end-point of the path is independent of where the query or store is issued from; since the path starts off by going to a particular landmark, its origin doesn't matter.

In pathDCS the landmarks are a set of beacon nodes, which can be elected randomly or manually configured (see Section 3.2). To make sure that all nodes know how to reach the beacons, we use standard tree-construction techniques to build trees rooted at each one of these beacons. The overhead to establish the necessary state is proportional to the number of beacons; as we will see, that number is small so pathDCS imposes little overhead.

The paths are specified in terms of an initial beacon and a set of segments, with each segment consisting of a direction (defined in terms of a beacon) and a length (defined by how many hops). Thus, each path consists of a sequence of p beacons bi and lengths li, where i = 1,..., p.1 The packet is first sent to beacon b1. From there, it is sent l2 hops towards beacon b2 using the tree rooted at b2. The process then repeats; from wherever the packet ended up at the previous i - 1 segment, it is then sent li hops towards the next beacon bi. The path ends after the pth segment.

To make this more precise, we first define some terms. There is a linear space of identifiers, say 16-bit addresses, that is large enough so that there are no clashes in identifier assignments. Each node in the network is assigned a logical identifier id. Data is associated with a key k (assume this is derived from a hash of its name) and, for node n, the hop distance to beacon b is given by hops(n, b). Let ni denote the identifier of the node on which the ith segments starts (also the place where the previous segment ends). Lastly, there is some hash function h(k, i) which maps an identifier k and an integer i into an identifier.

When accessing a data item with identifier k, the set of beacons used for the path are determined by consistent hashing [15]: beacon bi is the beacon whose identifier is closest to (in the sense of consistent hashing) the identifier h(k, i). In addition, the first segment length l1 is always equal to the distance to the first beacon b1, whereas segment lengths for i > 1 are given by:

li  = h(k, i)modhops(ni, bi) (1)

Figure 1: (a), (b) and (c) show the routing trees rooted at beacons b1, b2 and b3 respectively. (d) Source nodes s1 and s2 both send packets with the same key. These packets first reach a common first beacon (b1), before taking the same subsequent path segments to reach destination node d.

We use Figure 1 as an example to illustrate how pathDCS routes packets with the same key from different source nodes to the same destination node. For clarity we show the routing trees rooted at b1, b2 and b3 in Figures 1a, 1b and 1c respectively. We fix the total number of path segments at 3, and both source nodes s1 and s2 generate packets with the same key k. Both the current number of remaining hops and the current path segment i (also called segment counter) are carried in the packet header and modified as needed. In the figure, beacons b1, b2 and b3 are chosen because their ids are closest to h(k, 1), h(k, 2) and h(k, 3) respectively. The order of beacons towards which packets are forwarded is therefore b1, b2 and b3, following the order of segments traversed. Initially, both packets are routed to b1, upon which it is determined, using Equation 1, that in the second segment they should be forwarded towards b2 for, say, 1 hop. At node t, which is the terminating node of the second segment, the segment counter in the packet header is incremented, the number of hops is again computed using Equation 1 (assume the result is two), and the packets are subsequently forwarded two hops towards the third and final beacon, to terminate at node d. Node d is then the destination node for all data associated with key k.

The number of hops required for each query or store is proportional to the diameter of the network, which is the same for all DCS approaches, multiplied by the number of segments. Thus, the key to keeping the overhead of pathDCS manageable is keeping the number of segments, p, small. As we argue below, p = 2 is sufficient for reasonably-sized networks, so that we expect the per-query expenditure to be a few multiples bigger than in other DCS schemes.

The pathDCS algorithm has two parameters: B, the total number of beacons and p, the number of path segments. Varying B trades off the control traffic overhead due to tree construction versus load on the beacons. We explore this tradeoff in Section 5. With regards to p, increasing the number of segments results in longer paths but potentially spreads the storage load more evenly. To see this how large p should be to achieve reasonable load distribution, consider the following naive back-of-the-envelope calculation. The total number of paths a message can traverse using pathDCS is approximately Bp. Letting d be the network density and r the radio range, the expected length of each path is given by

(2)

Thus the number of nodes pathDCS routing can potentially use to store data is approximately

(3)

Equating 3 to total number of nodes N, the number of beacons required is given by

(4)

As an example, we plug in the following values: r = 8 units, d = 0.07 nodes per unit area,2N = 20000, and for p = 2, we obtain B &asymp 24, which is a reasonable number. We did simulations for p = 2, 3, 4, 5 to verify that indeed the distribution of load changes very little with increasing p and then picked p = 2 since it, as expected, resulted in the shortest paths. Note that knowledge of N by every node is not required, only p and B need be set at deployment. Unless the network size changes drastically we do not expect performance to degrade significantly.

3.2 Supporting Algorithms

While the basic idea of pathDCS is contained in the core algorithm defined above, actual implementation of pathDCS requires a set of supporting algorithms to, for example, select beacons and build trees. There is nothing novel in these algorithms, we describe them for completeness.

Tree Construction

To construct a tree rooted at a particular beacon, we recursively have nodes pick a parent that is closest to that beacon amongst all their neighbors. Our implementation uses the ETX [5], also the MT [33] metric as an indication of path quality.

Beacon Election

The total number of beacons in the system is a fixed constant B, and is dependent on the size of the network. We divide the identifier space into B equal partitions, and have each node compete to become the beacon for the partition in which they reside. Borrowing the basic concept from SRM [7], each node's self-election announcement is delayed by time proportional to the difference between their ids and the largest identifier for that partition (i.e. the identifier that describes the upper boundary of that partition). For instance, if we assume that B = 4, and node X, Y and Z's identifiers fall within the partitions 2, 2 and 4 respectively, only X and Y compete to be the beacon in partition 2. X and Y independently set a timer with delay (I2 - idX) and (I2 - idY) respectively, where I2 is the largest possible identifier for that partition, and is some constant. This scheme ensures that node Y, with the higher id, usually announces itself before X, thereby suppressing X's announcement.

It is possible that the election process results in two or more beacons clustering. An additional rule can be imposed to reduce the occurrence of this scenario: when timeout occurs and just before a node announces itself as a beacon, it checks to see if any beacons lie within k hops. If so, it suppresses its announcement.

Beacon Handoff and Failure

From time to time, the role of beacons should be handed over to other nodes, either due to failures, or to reduce the forwarding load on the beacons. In the case of the former, one hop neighbors begin a self-election process once the link quality to that beacon drops below a threshold. Similar to the initial election process, the delay for the timer set is a function of the difference between the current node's identifier, and that of the highest identifier for that partition. Note that in this case all one-hop neighbors participate in the election. The winning node then takes over the identifier of the deceased beacon, and assumes that role henceforth. For the case of deliberate handoff, the beacon randomly picks a neighbor, and switches identifiers with it. Possible different criteria exist, the meeting of any one can trigger deliberate handoff. An example of a criterion would be a minimum amount of remaining energy. In this case, the time at which handoff is triggered is very much dependent on the rate at which the application generates data packets. One can also imagine the beacons handing off in order to spread themselves out if they are clustered together. The proximity of the current and previous beacon ensures that drastic route updates in the network are minimized. Specifically, the destination nodes for a particular key before and after the handoff takes place should lie close to each other, in terms of number of hops. Together with data replication mentioned below, this increases the chances of finding the data before the next data refresh (see below) or before new data is stored at the updated location.

Responding to Queries

In the typical case, where the querying node is the base station (or any other well-defined node), we construct a tree rooted at that node. Answers to queries are sent back along this tree to the base station. If queries are being issued from multiple nodes, then each such node includes its closest beacon in the query. Backward path establishment from that beacon is performed by storing pointers to the previous node at each intermediate hop. Responses to queries are sent back to the closest beacon (as noted in the query) and that beacon forwards the response along the path that was established from the querying node by the path establishment message.

Data Refreshing

Every node where data is stored will periodically issue refresh probes for those data. These probes are routed in the same manner as the data packets, allowing the node to detect if the topology has changed since the initial storing. If the node initiating the refresh does not receive the probe in return, it then stores the data at the new location.

Data Replication

Finally, local replication of data is performed at the storage node. Data packets are disseminated using a localized flood within k-hops of the destination. A query reaching a destination not storing the required data is similarly flooded locally, with replication nodes responding to the query.

4. Performance Metrics

Before proceeding to the sections on simulation and implementation details and results, we elaborate on the metrics of interest, namely path consistency, storage and forwarding load balance.

The design of pathDCS raises three performance questions. The first has to do with the consistency with which pathDCS maps names to storage locations. In the absence of node and network dynamics, pathDCS achieves perfect consistency in that stores and lookups for a particular data item always terminate at the same storage node, and hence pathDCS would see a 100% success rate for lookups. However, node and network dynamics can lead to changes in the paths to beacons and hence to changes in the mapping between a name and storage node. The extent to which such changes impact lookups depends on both the frequency and the extent of changes. If changes in storage nodes are highly localized, then simple local replication of data should trivially mask such changes. If changes are infrequent, then a periodic refresh of stored data should suffice to maintain high success rates. In any case, pathDCS provides only weak consistency: it does not guarantee that the data retrieved is the latest stored.

These path changes are primarily dependent on the behavior of the wireless medium and hence we explore this issue in detail in Section 6. However, such changes are also dependent on network size because longer paths are more likely to experience changes. Since we can't analyze scaling effects on our testbed, we use an idealized, but highly pessimistic, model of path dynamics in our simulator to see how consistency varies with system size. To quantify consistency, we measure the lookup success rate, which is the probability that a lookup for a data item x reaches a storage node currently storing x. To understand the magnitude of lookup variations, we also measure the maximum separation in hops between any two nodes storing a particular data item, which we call the spread. This measures the extent to which local replication can mask the effect of path dynamics.

The second performance issue has to do with how effectively pathDCS balances the storage and forwarding load across nodes. This is a potential issue because unlike other DCS schemes that explicitly distribute data items over the set of all nodes, pathDCS distributes data over a more limited number of paths. While we do not expect pathDCS to achieve load distribution comparable to the address-based DCS schemes, we would like to verify that the load distribution in pathDCS is not unreasonable.

5. High-Level Simulation Results

5.1 Overview

The performance of pathDCS derives from the inherent behavior of its algorithms as well as the impact of the wireless medium on both the algorithms and our particular implementation choices. To separate the effects of each, we evaluate pathDCS through a combination of high-level simulations (to evaluate the scaling behavior of the algorithms themselves), low-level simulations that take into account a lossy medium and packet collision effects, and implementation (to evaluate pathDCS under realistic wireless conditions). This section presents our high-level simulation results; our prototype and its evaluation in TOSSIM [21] and on actual testbeds are described in Section 6.

Our simulator makes a number of simplifying assumptions that abstract away the vagaries of the wireless medium. Nodes are placed uniformly at random in a square plane and every node is assigned a fixed circular radio range. A node can communicate with all and only those nodes that fall within its radio range. In addition, the simulator does not model network congestion or packet loss. While clearly unrealistic, these simplifications allow simulations that scale to thousands of nodes; our packet-level simulation and testbed results in the following section capture performance under more realistic conditions.

Our default simulation scenario uses 5000 nodes placed in an area of 6.7 x 104 units2 with a radio range of 8 units, leading to an average node degree of 14.5. We maintain the same density for all simulations.

Figure 2: Success rate under failure and randomized parent selection for increasing network sizes. All tests use 20 beacons and 2 path segments.

Figure 3: Spread under failure and randomized parent selection for increasing network sizes. All tests use 20 beacons and 2 path segments.

Figure 4: CDF of storage load with pathDCS and ``optimal'' DCS for different numbers of beacons.

Figure 5: CDF of transmission load with pathDCS and ``optimal'' DCS for different numbers of beacons.

Figure 6: CDF of storage load using pathDCS for increasing network sizes.

Figure 7: CDF of transmission load using pathDCS for increasing network sizes.

5.2 Lookup Success Rates

The path to a beacon can change for two reasons: (1) tree reconfiguration following node failure(s) and (2) variations in link quality that trigger a change in a node's choice of parent. The first we can accurately model in simulation, the second we can only roughly approximate.

We perform the following test to measure success rates: for a network with N nodes, every node inserts 10 distinct data items into the network yielding a total of 10 x N distinct data items. Stores are replicated within the one-hop neighborhood of the destination. We then perform 20 lookups for each data item. A lookup succeeds if it arrives at a node storing the requested data item (either at the original destination, or at one of the one-hop replicas); otherwise, the lookup fails. To measure spread, we repeat the same tests as above but now we turn off one-hop replication and have each node store (rather than lookup) every data item 20 times. For each data item, we then consider the set of nodes storing that item and measure spread as the maximum separation in hops between any two nodes in the set.

To capture the effect of node failure, after each of the 20 iterations for a given item, we fail a fixed fraction of nodes uniformly at random and then recompute the trees for each beacon. Capturing varying link qualities is more problematic because our simulator does not model congestion and packet loss; instead, we directly address the effect on parent selection. We conservatively model changes in parent selection arising from varying link qualities as follows: rather than pick a single parent for each beacon, a node considers all of its neighbors that are closer to the destination beacon than itself as potential parents. For every message, a node then chooses its next hop uniformly at random from this entire set of potential parents. This represents a highly pessimistic scenario in which, at every hop, the route to a beacon can flap between all possible next-hops.3

Recall that fixed parent selection with no failure has a success rate of 100% and a spread of zero since we turn off one-hop replication when measuring spread. Figures 2 and 3 plot the average success rate and spread under increasing network size using random parent selection or fixed parent selection under various failure rates. As expected, we see that the success rate drops, and spread rises with network size but this deterioration is slow. For example, a 10,000 node network with random parent selection (which, again, is a pessimistic model) still sees a success rate of 92%. Moreover, the absolute value of spread is often low and hence could frequently be masked by simple k-hop local replication. We implement just 1-hop replication but for very large networks (>10,000 nodes) with high failure rates (30%) one might need a larger scope of replication.

Section 6 continues this evaluation in real wireless environments.

5.3 Load Distribution

There are only two knobs to the basic pathDCS algorithm: (1) the total number of beacons and (2) the number of path segments used. Ideally, we want to pick a number of beacons and path segments that allow forwarding and storage load to be well spread out while maintaining reasonable path stretch. The analysis in Section 3 leads us to the choice of 2 segments and hence we now look at the number of beacons required to achieve good load distribution.

We first hold N, the network size, fixed at 5000 nodes and scale B, the number of beacon nodes. As before, every node uses pathDCS to insert 10 distinct data items into the network yielding a total of 50,000 distinct stored items. We then measure the per-node forwarding and storage load. Figures 4 and 5 plot the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the storage and transmission load respectively. To determine if any load imbalances are due to pathDCS, or are inherent in the DCS approach, we also plot the distributions for an ``optimal'' form of DCS in which names are mapped uniformly at random over the entire set of nodes and stores follow the shortest path from the inserting node to the destination storage node.4 In terms of storage, we see that usage of just 20 beacons results in a fairly even distribution and that increasing B beyond 20 offers rapidly diminishing returns. In terms of transmission load, we see that the pathDCS distribution approaches that of the optimal although both are fairly skewed. This is due to the natural concentration of traffic in the center of the grid and is in no way specific to pathDCS or even DCS schemes in general; rather this is an issue for communication in all ad hoc networks and one that has received some attention in the literature [26].

At less than 1% of the total number of nodes, B = 20 represents very low control overhead in terms of tree construction. Moreover, we see that the pathDCS distributions are reasonably close to the optimal node-based DCS. Given the relative simplicity of pathDCS, this seems like a very worthwhile tradeoff.

We now investigate the variation of performance with increasing network size. We fix B = 20 and scale N. Figures 6 and 7 plot the CDF of transmission and storage load respectively. We see that, as expected, the distribution deteriorates with increasing N but this deterioration is very gradual.

Finally, the stretch in all our tests was approximately 2.4 which is in keeping with our use of 2 path segments. We also verified that stretch increases as we increase the number of path segments.

In summary, this section explored the basic scaling behavior of the pathDCS algorithms. We show that pathDCS is robust in that it achieves high success rates under highly pessimistic models of node and network dynamism. Moreover, pathDCS is scalable in that it requires a small number of beacons to achieve good load distribution.

6. Implementation Details and Results

We implemented pathDCS in TinyOS, and evaluated its performance on the 100-node Intel Mirage [4] micaZ testbed as well as on 500 nodes in TOSSIM's packet-level emulator. We begin this section by briefly describing the pathDCS system architecture, followed by low-level details of the implementation in TinyOS, and finally ending with evaluation of its performance.

6.1 PathDCS System Architecture

Figure 8: The pathDCS architecture is made up of (1) the data plane, consisting of the forwarding engine and data storage and replication component, and (2) the control plane, consisting of the tree construction and related components.

Figure 8 shows the pathDCS system architecture, which can be divided into control and data planes. The control plane provides primarily beacon election and tree-based routing capability, whereas the data plane implements the core pathDCS forwarding logic (using the control plane's tree-based routing tables), storage of name-value pairs, and one-hop replication. Note that the only component specific to pathDCS is the forwarding engine; the remaining components are common to a number of other systems such as TinyDB [24] and BVR [8].

6.2 Control Plane

We next elaborate on the implementation of the control plane. This component primarily constructs trees rooted at the beacons, disseminating and maintaining information used to determine the next hop at every node for each beacon in the network. We begin by describing the network-wide naming mechanism.

Node Identifier

Each node in the network is assigned a hardware address5 that is unique in the sensornet. This address is subsequently hashed to obtain the corresponding network identifiers. Since the hash function is known, collisions can be avoided by setting the hardware addresses appropriately.

Beacon Election

Periodically, each node broadcasts distance vector packets containing the identifiers and distances to each beacon in the network. If the relevant element in the vector indicates a beacon in the same partition with a smaller identifier, a node elects itself by replacing the identifier with its own before broadcasting. In this manner, the entire network eventually learns the beacons and their corresponding identifiers.

Link Quality Estimation

Nodes periodically broadcast estimates of their neighbors' reception qualities within their immediate neighborhood, allowing these neighbors to compute the link quality in both directions, thus accounting for asymmetric links. Messages are jittered slightly at each node to minimize interference. The link estimator module maintains, for each neighbor, a periodically updated estimate of link quality, which is the expected number of transmissions to that neighbor. This is computed as an exponentially weighted moving average:

Lav, i = (1 - &alpha)Lav, i-1 + &alphaLi

where Lav, i and Li are the average and sample respectively for iteration i and &alpha is a constant. Only route update packets are used as samples for the computation.

Tree Construction

Beacons periodically generate routing updates which are propagated through the network in a distance vector manner. A node uses the beacon election rules described in Section 3 to decide whether it should elect itself as a beacon. Nodes use these route updates to compute their minimum ``distance'' to each beacon. To reduce transmission loss, we use the MT [5], or ETX [33] metric, where the number of expected transmissions to each beacon is minimized.

Control packets and fields

Control messages broadcasted by a node include information such as its current hop distance and estimate of the expected number of transmissions to each beacon, the latest sequence numbers associated with the corresponding beacon, and the node's estimate of its neighbors' reception qualities. To remove the occurrence of one-hop count-to-infinity problems, control packets also include the next hops for each beacon, so that a node does not attempt to forward packets to its neighbor which will subsequently forward the packet back.

6.3 Data Plane

In this paper, the data plane operations of interest include the forwarding of pathDCS data packets and their replication. The description of these operations is followed by an brief coverage of the packet header overhead.

Forwarding

Packet headers include fields that contain the key and the current path segment the packet is on. Based on routing information provided by the control plane, these are used to determine the next beacon to route towards and the number of hops to take, as elaborated in Section 3.1. The remaining hops before reaching the end of a segment is also carried in the header.

Replication

Replication of data to improve availability is achieved by scoped flooding once the data packet reaches its destination node. The field previously used to indicate the number of remaining hops is used to specify the scope of the flood, and is decremented with each subsequent broadcast. To prevent repeated broadcasting of the same packet in the local neighborhood of a node, a cache of the most recently sent ones is kept.

Data packets and fields

The overhead incurred in each data packet is small. In our implementation, pathDCS uses 6 bits to represent the key associated with each data type, thus allowing for a total of 64 keys.6 In general we expect the number of unique data types to be small and independent of the size of the network. Also, in the case where the number of path segments is 2, we require an additional bit to keep track of the current segment the packet is on. Finally, the remaining hops to the terminating node of the current segment is also stored in the header, and is on the order of O(logD), where D is the maximum diameter of the network. In our implementation, the total number of control bits used to route data is just (data + segment + hops) = 6 + 2 + 8 = 16 bits.

6.4 Methodology

The primary concern when implementing pathDCS is the impact of its dependence on path stability. Whilst the construction of routing trees had been studied extensively, the main focus in previous studies was the successful forwarding of packets to the destination. Of little or no significance were the paths along which data packets traverse as long as they can get there. In pathDCS, the destination node is effectively defined as a function of the network's current routing state. As a result, if the network state changes frequently, we may store and query data items at destinations that shift rapidly with time. Such a situation will result in poor lookup success rate, rendering pathDCS less useful. This is therefore the most important point to address in our implementation.

Thus, as in Section 5, we are primarily interested in the probability of lookup success. A lookup can fail either because the message was dropped along the way, or because the destination node it arrived at did not have the requested data. Two metrics are used to distinguish between these two causes. The first is the route completion probability, measured as the probability that a packet successfully arrives at a destination node (as opposed to being dropped along the path). Note that the route completion probability has little to do with the pathDCS algorithms per se. Instead, such failures are dependent primarily on the characteristics of the wireless medium and our implementation choices for the link estimation, tree construction and retransmission modules. In general the quality of links in the network fluctuates over time, resulting in route updates as the network attempts to pick routes that result in lower loss.

The second performance metric is our usual lookup success rate as defined in Section 4. In computing this rate, we consider only those lookups that complete (that is, they reached some destination node), and we say that a lookup is successful if it locates the requested data item. To measure the effect of variable node and network conditions, we obtained the lookup success rate for different values of data refresh intervals. This is achieved as follows: in each experiment, we have all nodes periodically route some number of messages for each distinct data item. For the routes that do complete, we then observe where those messages terminate. Next, we divide time into windows, where the first data packet in that window is treated as a store or refresh packet, and the node at which it terminates is the storage node for that window. Subsequent packets then act as queries and lookup success is measured as the probability that a lookup arrives within the one-hop neighborhood7 of the storage node for that window. We do this for each distinct data item, compute the average lookup success and repeat for different window sizes. We note that varying this window size is equivalent to altering the data refresh interval, and we can thus use a single experiment to observe the effect of increasing refresh intervals rather than running repeated experiments that may suffer from different time-of-day effects.

Data refreshing plays a crucial role in improving lookup success, especially in large networks (of size in the hundreds to thousands), where the path may vary widely over time. When we consider short time-scales, say within a period of a minute or two, the set of destination nodes for a particular key is probably small in number, and not likely to be spread out over a large region. However, when looking at all possible destinations over a period of a day, the set of nodes will be the union of all sets at shorter time-scales: it is more likely to be large, as well as covering a wider area. Thus, a refresh rate that is high translates into observation at small time-scales, which means that destinations are close together, and therefore lookup success increases. We validate this in the following sections, via simulation and experiments on the testbed.

6.5 TOSSIM Simulations

In this section we describe packet-level simulations that model a lossy medium. A total of 500 nodes were simulated using actual TinyOS code. We begin by elaborating on the parameters used in the simulations as well as in the testbed's motes.

Table 1: Control plane parameters
Parameter Description Value
Number of beacons 5
Distance vector (DV) broadcast interval 10 seconds
Maximum DV broadcast jitter 1 second
Frequency of route updates 1 per 10 DV pkts
Maximum entries in neighbor table 16
Moving average for link estimation, &alpha 0.05


Table 2: Data plane parameters
Parameter Description Value
Number of path sections 2
Scope of flooding for local replication 1
Maximum retransmissions to the next hop 5
Maximum cached replication entries 4

Control plane parameters

The appropriate choice of parameters is dependent on the size of the network, as well as the desired properties of the applications that run on it. For instance, as we shall demonstrate in the subsequent sections, stable paths are a prerequisite for high lookup success in pathDCS. Stability can be improved by damping route updates at the expense of increased network reaction time to topology changes. Our choice of system parameters is shown in Table 1, and has been experimentally verified to yield satisfactory performance.

Data plane parameters

The heart of pathDCS lies in the data plane. Parameters associated with pathDCS can be tuned here, and are largely independent of the control plane. As in Section 5, we use only 2 segments in our implementation. This leads to lower stretch, an important consideration in real networks since longer routes result in an increase in loss probability. A shorter route is important also because it results in fewer transmissions, which consume energy in resource constrained sensor motes. Table 2 shows the parameters used in the data plane.

In each experiment, every node in the network generates different data items, thus data destined for a particular destination node originate from multiple sources. On average, data packets are injected into the network at the rate of two per second to minimize congestion. A total of 20 experiments are run, with each experiment querying or storing a particular, distinct key, and each node sending 72 packets. The network is allowed to run for a simulation hour for routing to converge before queries and storage began.

With the above parameters, we measure the route completion probability, the destination node spread distribution, and the lookup success rate under two test scenarios:

Normal

we measure performance using the above default parameter selection,

Fast Route Adaptation

we look at the impact of our choice of parameter selection on path stability and consequently on pathDCS performance. Specifically, the parameters for this test are the same as those for ``Normal'' except that the DV broadcast interval in Table 1 is reduced to 5 seconds, and the corresponding maximum jitter to 0.5 seconds. In general faster route adaptation can be desirable for reduced recovery time from failures.

Figure 9: The measure of destination spread distribution is based on the hop distance from the node that received the most packets (i.e. the mode).

Figure 10: 500-node simulation: distribution of destinations for the normal and fast route adaptation scenarios.

Since paths are likely to change over time, we need to investigate the destination spread distribution. Even though we expect the spread of destination nodes to be significant, the situation is not hopeless if we find that most of the packets still fall within a small region. Using Figure 9 as an illustration, we proceed as follows: we first determine the node that received the most number of packets for a particular key, we call this the mode node. Then, for each hop from the mode node, we compute the total fraction of packets that end on nodes at that distance. If the destination nodes are evenly spread out over a wide area, then the distribution will show a relatively flat graph over multiple hops. On the other hand, if the nodes are highly clustered together, we should see a graph that peaks at the 0th hop, with small fractions at the other hops.

Observations

In both scenarios, the mean network diameter is 18, the average probability of route completion is about 86%,8 and the mean number of neighbors is around 10.4. Figure 10 shows the distribution of destination nodes, from which we can observe the following:
  1. The majority of packets (80%) land within one hop of the mode node. This implies that, without data refreshing and with one hop replication, the mean probability of lookup success will also be about 80%. As we shall see subsequently, data refreshing increases this probability. Another alternative will be to increase the scope of local replication, which will however be at the expense of more transmissions and storage space.
  2. Having more dynamic routing does not affect the resulting destination spread. This is due to the fact that, over time, all possible combinations of routing state, and correspondingly all possible destinations, have been encountered. Increasing the rate at which changes occur does not affect this destination set.

Figure 11: 500-node simulation: variation of lookup success with data refresh interval.

We next consider the effect of data refreshing. As described in Section 6.4, lookup success now refers to average fraction of queries that end within the replication region for all window periods. These periods, or refresh intervals, are varied from 5 to 250 seconds, and the results are shown in Figure 11. We can observe that

  1. Refreshing data more frequently can increase the probability of a successful query to >95%.
  2. Faster route adaptation results in lower lookup success for a particular refresh interval.
  3. Variation in lookup success is higher for routing that updates more frequently.
  4. As the refresh interval increases, lookup success probability approaches that of packet fraction received within one hop of the mode node, which agrees with Figure 10.

Overhead Scaling

Figure 12: 500-node simulation: breakdown of transmissions for each packet type.

Finally, we consider the overhead incurred by pathDCS, focusing on the total number of each type of packet transmitted. We identify five types of packets: (1) distance vector (DV), (2) link estimation, (3) data packet transmission for replication, (4) data packet transmission for forwarding, and (5) data packet transmission for refreshing. Figure 12 shows the breakdown for various application data generation rates. We assume that the refresh per data type occurs once every 100 seconds, and that there are 100 data types in the network. The rest of the network parameters are as given in Tables 1 and 2. From the figure, we see that the fraction of overhead packets reduces with an increase in application rate, which is what we expect in general. Furthermore, the cost of refreshing data is low, compared to the initial data replication and forwarding.

To summarize, the 500-node packet-level simulation shows that local replication by itself is sufficient to result in high (80%) lookup success. Refreshing data periodically counters the effects of routing changes, and is able to increase lookup success to (>95%). However, the tradeoff is that more packets are transmitted, increasing the overhead incurred.

We now proceed to evaluate the performance of pathDCS on the Intel Mirage testbed.

6.6 Testbed Details and Results

Figure 13: Location of sensor motes of the Intel Mirage testbed is indicated by the stars.

The Mirage testbed is located indoors, covering an entire floor of the building. The 100 micaZ motes are spread out over an area of approximately 160' by 40', at the locations indicated in Figure 13. Each mote in the testbed has a serial interface that is connected to an internal ethernetwork, which in turn is accessible via the Mirage server. Binaries are uploaded and data downloaded via this ethernetwork, with the server providing timestamping service for downloaded data packets. We reduce the transmission power of the motes to reduce the effective density of the network. For all our experimental results in this section, the diameter of the network is 6. Packet generation, test scenarios and network parameters are the same as that of the packet-level simulations in Section 6.5.

Results

For the testbed, the mean number of per node neighbors is about 11.8, with the probability of route completion being 97.9% and 96.1% for the normal and fast route adaptation tests respectively. Figure 14 shows the spread of the destination nodes for both test scenarios. We see that in both cases the majority of packets terminate at a particular destination node, 87% for normal and 93% for fast route adaptation. If we consider all packets that terminate within one hop of the mode node, this figure rises to about 97% in both cases. Note that this takes into account all possible route changes and thus destinations for the duration of an experiment, and does not include the benefits gained from data refreshing. Thus, it is clear that for the testbed of size 100, we can obtain high lookup success even without refreshing.

Figure 14: Distribution, or spread, of the destination node. The fraction of packets landing x-hops away from the node with the highest fraction is shown.

Figure 15: Probability of lookup success for particular data refresh intervals.

On the other hand, when we consider data refresh, a routing system that is more dampened increases the chances of lookup success. Figure 15 shows the corresponding lookup success probabilities for these two systems. Four observations can be made from the figure:

  1. The lookup success is very high in both cases even with low refresh rates, which agrees with the observation in Figure 14 that the set of possible destination nodes is small.
  2. With increased damping, the system, in particular the paths, are more stable, resulting in less variation in lookup success.
  3. For a given refresh rate, lookup is generally worse for a more adaptive control plane.
  4. pathDCS constructed over a more dynamic routing control plane has to refresh its stored data more frequently in order to meet more stringent lookup success requirements.

In conclusion, the performance of pathDCS ultimately relies on the choice of parameters at the underlying control plane. Although the instability of paths causes the set of destination nodes to increase, we find that in general they tend to be highly clustered, with the majority of packets terminating on a small subset. Thus path fluctuations can be countered via two mechanisms: an increase in the scope of local replication, or an increase in the frequency of data refreshes. The former trades off storage space and additional transmissions for an increase in lookup success, whereas the latter trades off additional transmissions. From our results we believe that pathDCS is a feasible and simple way to implement data-centric storage in WSNs.

7. Summary

This paper describes a new approach to implementing data-centric storage (DCS). Our goal was not merely to find a new DCS algorithm, but to develop a more practical approach to DCS, one that does not rely on point-to-point routing. While point-to-point routing may one day be ubiquitously available in WSNs, it is not widely available now and current implementations are either based on idealized radio behavior or incur significant overhead and complexity. In contrast, tree construction primitives are widely available, and are becoming a rather standard component in most WSN deployments. Thus, DCS has a far better chance to become a basic and widely deployed WSN primitive if it only depends on tree-based routing.

From simulations and actual deployment, we see that the primary obstacle, namely fluctuating paths, can be overcome via the usage of local replication and data refreshing. Although these two mechanisms are not perfect in that they incur additional overhead, nonetheless they perform well enough for pathDCS to be of use in large WSNs.

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Footnotes

...p.1
Note that the labeling of the beacons bi is idiosyncratic to a path; that is, the indices i merely refer to the ordering of beacons in this particular path. We don't introduce a notation for an absolute labeling of the beacons.
... area,2
resulting in an average of 14 neighbors
... next-hops.3
Note that we restrict parent changes to those that are localized in that they do not trigger a re-computation of the tree downstream from the changing node. The effects of non-localized changes are captured by the tests for node failure.
... node.4
In practice, implementing this form of optimal DCS would require every node to have global knowledge of all the nodes in the system as well as shortest path point-to-point routing.
... address5
The TOS_LOCAL_ADDRESS in TinyOS.
... keys.6
To accomodate more keys we can simply use more bits.
... neighborhood7
This reflects the local one-hop replication.
... 86%,8
Since the network diameter is large, we expect the end-to-end loss probability to become significant, even with the use of link-level retransmissions. Thus, this does not reflect on pathDCS, only the underlying packet loss behavior.

This paper was originally published in the Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '06)
May 8–10, 2006, San Jose, CA


Last changed: 3 May 2006 jel