Ground Truth for Binary Disassembly is Not Easy


Chengbin Pang and Tiantai Zhang, Nanjing University; Ruotong Yu, University of Utah; Bing Mao, Nanjing University; Jun Xu, University of Utah


Modern disassembly tools often rely on empirical evaluations to validate their performance and discover their limitations, thus promoting long-term evolvement. To support the empirical evaluation, a foundation is the right approach to collect the ground truth knowledge. However, there has been no unanimous agreement on the approach we should use. Most users pick an approach based on their experience or will, regardless of the properties that the approach presents.

In this paper, we perform a study on the approaches to building the ground truth for binary disassembly, aiming to shed light on the right way for the future. We first provide a taxonomy of the approaches used by past research, which unveils five major mechanisms behind those approaches. Following the taxonomy, we summarize the properties of the five mechanisms from two perspectives: (i) the coverage and precision of the ground truth produced by the mechanisms and (ii) the applicable scope of the mechanisms (e.g., what disassembly tasks and what types of binaries are supported). The summarization, accompanied by quantitative evaluations, illustrates that many mechanisms are ill-suited to support the generation of disassembly ground truth. The mechanism best serving today's need is to trace the compiling process of the target binaries to collect the ground truth information.

Observing that the existing tool to trace the compiling process can still miss ground truth results and can only handle x86/x64 binaries, we extend the tool to avoid overlooking those results and support ARM32/AArch64/MIPS32/MIPS64 binaries. We envision that our extension will make the tool a better foundation to enable universal, standard ground truth for binary disassembly.

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@inproceedings {281304,
author = {Chengbin Pang and Tiantai Zhang and Ruotong Yu and Bing Mao and Jun Xu},
title = {Ground Truth for Binary Disassembly is Not Easy},
booktitle = {31st USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 22)},
year = {2022},
isbn = {978-1-939133-31-1},
address = {Boston, MA},
pages = {2479--2495},
url = {},
publisher = {USENIX Association},
month = aug,

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