CryptoREX: Large-scale Analysis of Cryptographic Misuse in IoT Devices


Li Zhang, Jinan University; Jiongyi Chen, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Wenrui Diao and Shanqing Guo, Shandong University; Jian Weng, Jinan University; Kehuan Zhang, The Chinese University of Hong Kong


Cryptographic functions play a critical role in the secure transmission and storage of application data. Although most crypto functions are well-defined and carefully-implemented in standard libraries, in practice, they could be easily misused or incorrectly encapsulated due to its error-prone nature and inexperience of developers. This situation is even worse in the IoT domain, given that developers tend to sacrifice security for performance in order to suit resource-constrained IoT devices. Given the severity and the pervasiveness of such bad practice, it is crucial to raise public awareness about this issue, find the misuses and shed light on best practices.

In this paper, we design and implement CryptoREX, a framework to identify crypto misuse of IoT devices under diverse architectures and in a scalable manner. In particular, CryptoREX lifts binary code to a unified IR and performs static taint analysis across multiple executables. To aggressively capture and identify misuses of self-defined crypto APIs, CryptoREX dynamically updates the API list during taint analysis and automatically tracks the function arguments.

Running on 521 firmware images with 165 pre-defined crypto APIs, it successfully discovered 679 crypto misuse issues in total, which on average costs only 1120 seconds per firmware. Our study shows 24.2% of firmware images violate at least one misuse rule, and most of the discovered misuses are unknown before. The misuses could result in sensitive data leakage, authentication bypass, password brute-force, etc. Our findings highlight the poor implementation and weak protection in today's IoT development.

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@inproceedings {242030,
author = {Li Zhang and Jiongyi Chen and Wenrui Diao and Shanqing Guo and Jian Weng and Kehuan Zhang},
title = {CryptoREX: Large-scale Analysis of Cryptographic Misuse in IoT Devices},
booktitle = {22nd International Symposium on Research in Attacks, Intrusions and Defenses ({RAID} 2019)},
year = {2019},
isbn = {978-1-939133-07-6},
address = {Chaoyang District, Beijing},
pages = {151--164},
url = {},
publisher = {{USENIX} Association},
month = sep,