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Performance Issues

Delays for loading classes are already substantial, given the high latency of loading the class from disk or from across the network, and the time required to verify the class. Even so, the performance of load-time transformation is a critical concern, since the overhead of transformation may be perceived by the user.

Despite the incremental parsing optimization, the class parsing and modification code in our current prototype is fairly slow. While we have put little effort into performance tuning at this point, initial experiments with simple JOIE transformers show that it takes milliseconds or even tens of milliseconds to parse and transform typical classes. We did these experiments on 167 MHz Sun Microsystems Ultra 1 systems with Solaris 2.4, and using Sun's JDK 1.2 beta 3 and JIT compiler.

We plan to improve our current JOIE prototype in several important ways. ClassInfo currently represents all internal data structures (lists of methods, fields, interfaces, and instructions) as Java arrays. This makes access fast (as compared to Vectors, for example), but it also makes insertion extremely expensive. In a future release we plan to instead use the Java Collection interface available in JDK 1.2. In addition to improving performance, this will allow transformers to use the iterators and update primitives in the Collection interface to access the Methods, Fields, and Instructions of each target class, streamlining the JOIE interface and implementation.

Adding fields or methods to a class often requires repeated searches of the Constant Pool, since we are forbidden from repeating any entry. Currently these searches are linear; an index structure would significantly reduce the cost of adding and accessing entries in the Constant Pool during transformation.

Geoff Alex Cohen
Tue Apr 28 14:31:49 EDT 1998