A transformer uses the reflection portion of the JOIE API to expose the structure of the target class, including symbolic information, fields, methods, interfaces, and attributes. Using the API, a transformer can determine the name, signature, and modifiers (public, synchronized, static, etc.) for any class member. Given a class, it can identify the superclass and any implemented interfaces. Most importantly, a transformer can directly access and browse the class methods and their bytecode instructions.
These reflection features of the JOIE toolkit are similar to those present in a number of languages to allow the discovery of the structure of classes at run time. Java added runtime reflection functionality in the 1.1 release of the Java Developer's Kit (JDK). However, the Java reflection API is available only after the class has been loaded into the JVM. This is too late for load-time transformation, which seeks to transform the class before loading takes place. Additionally, reflection was not designed to extend functionality, and so does not make available the implementation of class methods. Method implementations are accessible through the javap disassembler included in the standard Java Developer's Kit (JDK), but javap runs from the shell and prints to its standard output; it is not integrated into the Java reflection API, nor does it produce a data structure that can be manipulated by the program.
JOIE's reflection features are useful for a wide variety of analyses, both in their own right as program analysis tools and as the basis for more powerful transformations. For example, JOIE can be used to construct the class hierarchy, build a call graph, or create interprocedural control-flow or dataflow graphs.