The Common Rule requires organizations performing federally supported research to designate an institutional review board (IRBs) to oversee human subject research. Many organizations furfill this requirement by establishing their own IRBs. Each IRB must have ``at least five members'' with different backgrounds so that it can ``adequately review [the] research activities commonly conducted by the institution''(§46.107 (a)). Members must include representatives of both genders, at least one scientist and one non-scientist, and one member who is not affiliated with the institution(§46.107(b,c,d)). Members are prohibited from voting on their own research(§46.107(e)).