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Content replication across malware distribution sites.

We finally evaluate the extent to which malware is replicated across the different distribution sites. To do so, we use the same metric in Equation 1 to calculate the normalized pairwise intersection of the set of malware hashes served by each pair of distribution sites. Our results show that in $ 25\%$ of the malware distribution sites, at least one binary is shared between a pair of sites. While malware hashes exhibit frequent changes as a result of obfuscation, our results suggest that there is still a level of content replication across the different sites. Figure 13 shows the normalized pair-wise intersection of the malware sets across these distribution networks. As the graph shows, binaries are less frequently shared between distribution sites compared to landing sites, but taken as a whole, there is still a non-trivial degree of similarity among these networks.

Niels Provos 2008-05-13