OSDI '06 Abstract
Pp. 177190 of the Proceedings
HQ Replication: A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Byzantine Fault
James Cowling, Daniel Myers, and Barbara Liskov, MIT CSAIL; Rodrigo Rodrigues, INESC-ID and Instituto Superior Técnico; Liuba Shrira, Brandeis University
There are currently two approaches to providing Byzantine-fault-tolerant state machine replication: a replica-based approach, e.g., BFT, that uses communication between replicas to agree on a proposed ordering of requests, and a quorum-based approach, such as Q/U, in which clients contact replicas directly to optimistically execute operations. Both approaches have shortcomings: the quadratic cost of inter-replica communication is unnecessary when there is no contention, and Q/U requires a large number of replicas and performs poorly under contention.
We present HQ, a hybrid Byzantine-fault-tolerant state machine
replication protocol that overcomes these problems. HQ employs a
lightweight quorum-based protocol when there is no contention, but
uses BFT to resolve contention when it arises. Furthermore,
HQ uses only 3f+1 replicas to tolerate f faults, providing optimal
resilience to node failures.
We implemented a prototype of HQ, and we compare its
performance to BFT and Q/U
analytically and experimentally. Additionally, in this
work we use a new implementation of BFT designed to scale as the
number of faults increases. Our results show that both HQ and our
new implementation of BFT scale as f increases;
additionally our hybrid approach of using BFT to handle contention
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