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USENIX, The Advanced Computing Systems Association

LISA '06 Paper

FLAIM: A Multi-level Anonymization Framework for Computer and Network Logs

Adam Slagell, Kiran Lakkaraju, and Katherine Luo
- NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Pp. 63-77 of the Proceedings of LISA '06: 20th Large Installation System Administration Conference
(Washington, DC: USENIX Association, December 3-8, 2006).

Abstract

FLAIM (Framework for Log Anonymization and Information Management) addresses two important needs not well addressed by current log anonymizers. First, it is extremely modular and not tied to the specific log being anonymized. Second, it supports multi-level anonymization, allowing system administrators to make fine-grained trade-offs between information loss and privacy/security concerns. In this paper, we examine anonymization solutions to date and note the above limitations in each. We further describe how FLAIM addresses these problems, and we describe FLAIM's architecture and features in detail.

Introduction

As computer systems have become more interconnected and attacks have grown broader in scope, forensic investigations of computer security incidents have crossed more and more organizational boundaries [7]. This poses a difficulty for the computer security engineer since it becomes more difficult to understand attacks from the narrowing perspective they have from the vantage point of just their own logs. Consequently, there is an increased desire to share logs within the security operations community.

This increased demand is clearly seen within the community of security operations, but developers, researchers and educators also depend upon log sharing. Developers of forensic and log analysis tools need records from real incidents to test the effectiveness of their new tools. Networking researchers depend heavily upon large and diverse data sets of network traces [13]. Security and honeynet researchers also desire large and diverse data sets of logs and network traces to do their research [19]. Educators in traditional academia as well as those that train security engineers (e.g., the SANS Institute) depend upon real-life examples for students to analyze and incorporate into assignments. Consequently, in step with the growth of the computer security field, there has been an increase in the need for sound methods of sharing log data.

While it is generally recognized that sharing logs is important and useful [16], it is very difficult to accomplish even among small groups. The difficulty arises because logs are sensitive, and it is difficult to establish high levels of trust between multiple organizations - especially in a rapid manner in response to distributed, yet related attacks. The consequences of logs getting into the wrong hands can be severe whether they are simply mishandled by friendly peers or fall directly into the hands of adversaries through public disclosure.

There are many types of potentially sensitive information in logs, and as such, logs are like a treasure map for would-be attackers. Access to them can provide special views of security weaknesses not visible from outside scans, or in the very least make the attacker's reconnaissance job much simpler. Logs may reveal bottlenecks as potential DoS targets, record plaintext login credentials, reveal security relationships between objects or reveal soft targets (e.g., machines already compromised and part of an existing botnet). For these reasons, security administrators are reluctant to share their logs with other organizations, even if there is a potential benefit.

While a draconian vetting process for would-be recipients and strong physical controls over the location of log data could be used to address some of these concerns about sharing sensitive logs, such techniques are not flexible or scalable. Anonymization is an eminently more flexible solution, and it has been increasingly employed in recent years. Still, the tools and methods to-date that anonymize logs are immature, and log sharing has not been achieved at the levels expected or with the ease desired. It is true that there are log repositories out there, but they all seem to share at least one of the following problems:

  • They do not have a wide view of the Internet, but they are quite localized;
  • the repositories are very specific, addressing only one or a few types of logs;
  • anonymization techniques are weak - often nonexistent - and usually inconsistent between submissions; or
  • they collect many logs but do not share them with the research community [16].
Furthermore, even if someone is willing to take a risk and submit a large number of logs for public consumption, security engineers are still faced with the difficulties of gathering specific logs from other organizations during an on-going investigation.

We contend that the problem stems from the fact that tools for log anonymization are immature and not able to meet the many, varied needs of potential users. Specifically, they have been one-size-fits-all tools, addressing only one type of log, often anonymizing only one field in one way. We desperately need more flexible tools that are

  • highly extensible;
  • multi-level, supporting many options for each field, allowing one to customize the level of anonymization for their needs;
  • multi-log capable, being flexible enough to support the anonymization of most security relevant logs without major modification; and
  • have a rich supply of anonymization algorithms available for use on various fields.
To meet these needs, we have developed FLAIM, the Framework for Log Anonymization and Information Management, a C++ based anonymization tool for popular UNIX-like operating systems (e.g., Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD and Mac OS X).

FLAIM strictly separates parsing from anonymization, providing an API through which run-time dynamically loaded parsing modules can communicate with the rest of the framework. Details such as file I/O are abstracted away from FLAIM's core, making it possible to handle streamed data as easily as static data on the disk. The anonymization engine, which consists of a suite of anonymization primitives for many different data types, is also separated from the profile manager which manages the XML based anonymization policies (e.g., parsing policies, validating policies against schemas, etc.). These three components, together, provide an extensible and modular anonymization framework able anonymize data to multiple levels for multiple types of logs.

While we have only talked about computer and network logs to this point, the uses for a general framework for anonymization extend far beyond the sharing of network logs. In late 2004, University of California - Berkeley researchers were denied permission to analyze a large set of personal data about participants in a state social program after their systems were hacked and data on approximately 1.4 million people were breached [12].

This example highlights two points. First, research often depends on access to large amounts of data. The UC-Berkeley team was investigating how to provide better care to homebound patients. Similarly, proponents of an NSA domestic spying program have claimed that the 9/11 hijackers could have been identified by a program that analyzed communications data [5]. Second, there are concerns of privacy protection on these data sets seen in the backlash against such programs.

Anonymization potentially offers the best of both worlds, allowing analysis while also protecting privacy. If the UC-Berkeley data had been anonymized before being distributed, the vulnerability to identity theft and other misuse may have been mitigated. While we have not created modules for these other data sets yet in FLAIM, we have made FLAIM's core fairly agnostic about the data source, capable of working with any sort of record/field formatted data. This generality opens up many possible future applications that we have not even considered as of yet.

The rest of this paper is structured as follows. In the next section, we present an overview of FLAIM, discussing its goals and functionality. We then present a detailed description of the FLAIM architecture and API followed by a description of the anonymization algorithms available in FLAIM. We follow with an extended example of their use and a discussion of other log anonymization tools. We then conclude and discuss future work.

Overview of FLAIM and Goals

There are four properties that an anonymization tool must have in order to meet the varied needs of potential users. The anonymization tool must: supply a large and diverse set of anonymization algorithms, support many logs, support different levels of anonymization for a log, and finally have an extensible, modular architecture.

These properties are not independent but to a large extent depend upon each other. Namely, to support multi-level anonymization of logs it is necessary to have multiple types of anonymization algorithms. In order to provide support for multiple types of logs it is extremely useful to have an extensible, modular architecture for the tool.

Utility and Strength of Anonymization Primitives

We use the term anonymization algorithm or anonymization primitive to describe an algorithm that takes as input a piece of data and modifies it so that it does not resemble its original form. For instance, we could have an anonymization algorithm that takes proper names, such as ``Alice'' and ``John'' and transforms each name by constructing an anagram (e.g., ``John'' becomes ``Honj'' and ``Alice'' becomes ``Cliea'').

Clearly, anyone seeing these anonymized names would be able to guess at the unanonymized names. Thus, we define the strength of an anonymization algorithm to be related to the difficulty of retrieving information about the original values from the anonymized values. For instance, a black marker anonymization algorithm, which just replaces every name with the string ``NULL'' is very strong - requiring one to use only other identifying fields if they want to gather information about the unanonymized value of that field. In a similar way, we can talk about the strength of a set of anonymization algorithms applied to several distinct fields. For example, a scheme that only anonymizes one field might not be strong enough, but one that anonymizes a set of three fields together may be much stronger.

The strength of an anonymization algorithm is crucial to making sure that private data is not retrieved from shared logs, but this is not the sole goal of sharing logs. The real purpose to sharing logs is to allow analysis of your logs. To do this, one must preserve some type of information in the logs. The utility of an anonymization algorithm is related to how much information is preserved in the anonymized value. Note that just as we can talk about the security of an anonymization primitive, we can also talk about the utility of a scheme or set of algorithms applied to specific fields.

Consider the proper name anonymization example from above. The anagram anonymizer has a greater utility than the black marker anonymization primitive. With the anagram anonymized names, we lose the structure of the word, but there still remains the number of letters and the actual letters from the unanonymized value. The black marker anonymization algorithm strips away all such information.

It is clear that the utility and strength of an anonymization algorithm are strongly related. Furthermore, these relationships are complex, since the utility and strength are based on the type of analysis we are doing. In our future work we plan on further exploring the relationship between the utility and strength of various anonymization algorithms based on the task of detecting security problems in network logs. However, a first step to reaching this goal is creating a flexible tool like FLAIM that allows us to make such trade-offs in anonymization.


IPBlack MarkerRandom PermutationTruncationPrefix Preserving
141.142.96.16710.1.1.1141.142.132.37141.14212.131.102.67
141.142.96.1810.1.1.1141.142.96.167141.14212.131.102.197
141.142.132.3710.1.1.112.72.8.5141.14212.131.201.29
12.161.3.310.1.1.1212.3.4.112.161187.192.32.51
12.72.8.510.1.1.1141.142.96.1812.72187.78.201.97
212.3.4.110.1.1.112.161.3.3212.331.197.3.82

Table 1: Example of four common methods to anonymize IP addresses.

Diverse Set of Anonymization Algorithms

As we mentioned earlier, the central goal of sharing network and system logs is to aid in the analysis of security related incidents on the network. And essential to meeting this goal for various organizations and their unique scenarios is the ability to make trade-offs between the utility of the anonymized log and the strength of the anonymization scheme. A necessary condition to make these trade-offs is to have a diverse set of anonymization primitives available for the tool at hand.

Earlier, we discussed how different anonymization primitives can make different trade-offs between security and information loss with a simple example. Now let us examine a more complex example with IP addresses. Table 1 shows a set of IP addresses anonymized by various algorithms:

  • Black marker anonymization, in this example, maps all the IP addresses to the same value, 10.1.1.1. This leaves no scope for analysis on that field.
  • Random permutation maps each IP address to another address at random. This allows some type of analysis, as we could determine if two hosts in different records are the same.
  • Truncation, in this example, removes the last 16 bits of an IP address. This allows one to see what the different domains are, but several hosts are collapsed down into single values. Thus, it becomes difficult to separate individual hosts in the records.
  • Finally, prefix-preserving anonymization maps the IP addresses to random addresses, but it preserves the subnet structures. In this example, we see that the 141 class A network is consistently mapped to 12, preserving the subnet structures, but not revealing the original subnets. In addition, it preserves individual hosts like a random permutation, thus preserving much more utility than the other methods. However, this comes at a cost of anonymization strength as we have shown in [16].

Similar trade-offs can be made for other fields by having multiple anonymization algorithms available. Even the ability to decide which fields are anonymized, provides a mechanism to make similar trade-offs. However, having this vast set of anonymization primitives is just one of the necessary conditions to create multiple levels of anonymization, a point we discuss further in a later part of this section.

Supporting Multiple Logs

A security incident is often only revealed in the presence of multiple logs. Thus, proper analysis often requires access to many different logs. Therefore, a holistic anonymization solution should anonymize different types of logs. While one could write a separate tool for each log type, this is a very inefficient approach. This is especially apparent when we notice that many logs share the same set of common fields (e.g., IP address, port number, timestamp). The only difference is often in how these fields are represented within the logs (e.g., dotted decimal IP addresses in netfilter logs and binary 32 bit unsigned integers in network byte order in NetFlows).

FLAIM supports multiple logs by having many ``modules''; each module parses one specific type of log. New modules can be created and added to FLAIM by merely implementing a simple interface that communicates through the FLAIM API. Modules are loaded as run-time libraries, so no recompilation of FLAIM is necessary. This allows users to leverage the diverse set of anonymization algorithms that FLAIM provides by only creating a module to do the I/O and parsing.[Note 1]

Multi-level Anonymization

Security related logs often need to be shared between several different organizations to investigate a compromise, or even internally between different groups within the organization. Logs could also be shared externally with organizations providing security out-sourcing services. The level of anonymization to be applied to the logs changes with the recipient of the log. For internal users, the logs may not have to be anonymized as strongly, whereas for external users they most likely require stronger protections.

This means that an anonymization tool must support multiple levels of anonymization. Different levels could be used for different recipients as well as different situations for log sharing. Having multiple anonymization algorithms of different strengths provides the building blocks for multi-level anonymization, but something more is needed. There should be a system to express and evaluate these anonymization schemes. FLAIM does this through use of XML anonymization policies. Users create these XML policies or use predefined ones to choose the appropriate level of anonymization for a given log. In particular, this policy will specify which fields are anonymized and in what way. Schemas built into FLAIM check that the policies are syntactically correct and that the options make semantic sense for the type of fields. Since these policies are not hard coded into FLAIM, they can be easily modified at any time.

Modularity

As we said, FLAIM supports multiple log formats (e.g., netfilter, pcap, nfdump, etc.). We could have done this with a large monolithic piece of software code. In this case, one could use FLAIM for many types of logs, but still only a small set of all the logs out there, namely, the set that we saw as important for our needs. However, we did not do this because we wanted FLAIM to be extensible. We have, instead, created a very modular framework with a strict API between the separate components. Consequently, anonymization, policy verification and parsing have all been separated. This allows not only us, the FLAIM developers, to add support for new types of logs, but it makes it much easier for third party module developers to add support for new types of logs within FLAIM.

FLAIM Architecture

To run FLAIM, one must specify a user policy - a description of the anonymization algorithms to be used for each field. One of the key contributions of FLAIM is that it allows the user to specify an anonymization policy that can make use of a multitude of anonymization algorithms at run-time. Another key contribution of FLAIM is that parsing and I/O are separated to allow third parties to add support for additional logs. To achieve this, the architecture is composed of two main components: FLAIM Core and FLAIM Modules. FLAIM Core consists of a suite of anonymization algorithms - the anonymization engine - and the policy manager. FLAIM Core reads and writes to records via the Module API implemented by each I/O module. Figure 1 illustrates the overall architecture of FLAIM.



Figure 1: The FLAIM Architecture.

FLAIM modules consist of libraries of methods to parse various types of logs. A single module is normally used to parse a single type of log file. Every module is compiled as a dynamically linked library which loads at runtime. Each module must implement the Module API which defines a set of methods necessary for FLAIM Core to get records to process and return them to the module to be reassembled and written out.

In understanding the design of FLAIM, it is useful to distinguish between three different actors that play a role in the development and use of FLAIM. We have alluded to them before, but define them formally below.

  • LAIM Group: This refers to the Log Anonymization and Information Management group at the NCSA. We developed FLAIM, both FLAIM Core and the first FLAIM Modules.
  • Module Developers: These people have developed or are interested in developing log parsing modules that implement the Module API.
  • FLAIM Users: These people are interested in using FLAIM to anonymize a set of logs using existing modules.

The basic workflow for FLAIM is as follows:

  • FLAIM is called with parameters that specify the input/output data, the user policy, and the modules needed to parse the input/output data.
  • The policy manager parses the user policy and determines the anonymization algorithms that will be applied to each field of the data. In addition to parsing, it uses schemas to validate the policy.
  • A record is ``requested'' by FLAIM Core via the Module API.
  • The record is anonymized based on the user policy.
  • The anonymized record is sent back via the Module API and written out.
  • The last three steps are repeated for all records.

In the rest of this section, we describe the Policy Manager and the Module API. Also, at the heart of FLAIM Core is the Anonymization Engine which is basically a set of anonymization algorithms. The anonymization engine was developed by the LAIM group and is being continually extended. Currently, there are eight different types of anonymization algorithms implemented that differ based on their strength. Section IV describes the various anonymization algorithms in detail, and thus we defer further discussion of the anonymization engine till the next section.

Policy Manager

The policy manager ensures that the anonymization policy specified by the user is valid - that is, it specifies a known anonymization algorithm with valid options for a data type that makes sense. For example, it would not allow prefix-preserving IP address anonymization to be specified for a timestamp field. The anonymization policy must be validated with both the FLAIM schema and the Module schema to be accepted.

The FLAIM schema details what anonymization algorithms are available as well as options for those algorithms. As new versions of FLAIM are released, new anonymization methods will be included in the anonymization engine. The set of anonymization methods currently available is listed in the FLAIM schema. The FLAIM schema is maintained by the FLAIM developers.

The module schema indicates which anonymization methods are appropriate for the specific fields in the log. As the developers of FLAIM, we can specify to what data types a particular anonymization algorithm can be applied. However, we cannot anticipate the names or handles that a module developer will use for those fields. These names are not only used in the anonymization policy, but also in the meta-format that the module uses to send records to FLAIM. In essence, FLAIM Core simply sees a record as a list of tuples of the form < FieldName,FieldValue > FLAIM Core then matches the field name with the options specified for the field name in the policy to determine how to anonymize it.

We could construct a list of valid field names from which the module developer could choose names. This would allow FLAIM Core to recognize the data type and make sure the algorithm being applied makes semantic sense for that field. However, we could hardly anticipate the needs for any type of log. For example, we could specify ``IP1'' and ``IP2'' as valid names, however, a log that we do not anticipate may have four distinct IP addresses per record. It could also have fields of types we did not expect, but need to be passed to the anonymization engine to be kept with the records if they are being reordered.

Consequently, we do not restrict the set of field names that the parser could use when sending records, i.e., the same field names specified in the user's policy. So to make sure that an algorithm is applied to the correct data type, the module developer creates a schema using a very simple syntax that specifies what algorithms can be used with what field names or handles. Being the only one who knows the data type that corresponds to the field names, this must be done by the module developer. We will distribute header files for the anonymization algorithms so that module developers know the data type expected by an anonymization algorithm.

The module schema is written in XML and must conform to our definition of a ``Module Schema Language.'' For module developers who have experience with Schematron, the module schema may be written in Schematron. We use an XSLT stylesheet to translate the Module schemas written in a simple Module Schema Language to Schematron stylesheets. Figure 2 shows an example module schema written in the Module Schema Language.



Figure 2: A Module schema written in the Module Schema Language.

We see that, together, validation against both the FLAIM schema and the module schema ensures that the user's anonymization policy uses anonymization algorithms that are supported by FLAIM, with appropriate options, and are applied to fields in a semantically sound manner (e.g., so an algorithm that only makes sense for timestamps is not applied to IP addresses).

Thus, the policy manager's role is twofold:

  • Validate the user's policy against the FLAIM schema and the module schema.
  • Parse the user policy file into an internal format to be used by the anonymization engine.

Figure 3 is an example of part of a sample user policy.



Figure 3: A simple anonymization policy.

I/O Modules

The I/O library reads and parses an input file or stream. A module library's purpose is to abstract away from FLAIM the task of physically manipulating the medium which contains the data. All modules must implement the module API that is defined by the LAIM developers. The API allows FLAIM to access the module schema, described above, as well as provides methods to access the data. Modules are responsible for handling storage, retrieval and parsing of the data. Of these data, there are two important types: static files or streams.

Static files are ordinary files to which FLAIM has random access - the key distinction from streams being random access. However, it is not always practical to store all the data in static files. Rather, real-time anonymization may be done on the data as it is collected, perhaps even before it is written to disk. Data that can only be accessed once is called ``streaming data,'' a particular data source being called a ``stream.''

Handling a stream can be quite different from a static file. For example, an anonymization algorithm may require scanning the log twice and hence the ability to go back to the beginning of the data source. This can be problematic for streams, of course. As such, there are mechanisms in the FLAIM API to let the module know if one of the anonymization algorithms chosen will need random access. It is up to the module developer to decide whether or not to support such algorithms and how to do so.

The Module API

The module interface has been designed to be as simple as possible. It consists of five functions that a module must implement. These functions control the input and output of records as well as resetting the counter in the file. Procedures that need to be implemented are listed below:

// Returns the filename containing the module schema
char* getModuleSchema()
// Communicate to the module the command
// line parameters passed into FLAIM
void setDataSets(char* inputfilename,
                 char* outputfilename)
// Return a single record
Record getRecord()
// Get the current location of the record counter.
int getCntrValue()
// reset the record counter
bool resetCntrValue();
// return true if this is the last record
bool atEnd();
// Write a single record
int putRecord(Record r)

Summary of the Architecture

The architecture of FLAIM is designed to satisfy the properties stated in the previous section. The Anonymization Engine in FLAIM Core contains a diverse set of anonymization algorithms for many different data types. The Policy Manager component of FLAIM Core allows users to easily provide many different levels of anonymization to logs by utilizing the many algorithms in the Anonymization Engine. Users can easily change the anonymization of a log by specifying a new user policy in the simple XML language specified by FLAIM. Users can create anonymization polices tailored to the log and situation in which the log is being distributed.

Finally, FLAIM is designed in a modular fashion to be highly extensible to many types of logs. Log parsing modules can be dynamically loaded into FLAIM at runtime. This allows new logs to be added without changing the anonymization engine or the policy manager. We defined a simple API that all log parsing modules must implement. FLAIM Core will interact with the log parsing module via this API. The API is simple, giving module developers much flexibility. Taken as a whole, these components and the modules we have created make FLAIM the first extensible, multi-level, multi-log anonymization tool with the largest set of anonymization primitives of which we are aware.

Anonymization Algorithms for FLAIM

FLAIM implements many types of anonymization algorithms. A few are coupled very tightly with the data type being anonymized, but many can be applied to multiple fields. However, the default values and other configuration options may be affected by the data type. For example, while truncation can be applied to almost any field, it makes sense to truncate a MAC address by 40 bits but not to do the same to a 32 bit IPv4 address. Below we discuss the different classes of anonymization algorithms FLAIM supports, and in the following section we go into an extensive example of how they are used.

Black Marker

Black marker anonymization - a term we coined in [15] - is equivalent, from an information theoretic point of view, to printing out a log and going over each value of a sensitive field with a black marker. This analog variant is often seen in sensitive documents retrieved from the government. We simply implement a digital equivalent.

In our implementation, the entire field or just part of it can be ``blacked out.'' So IP addresses could have just the last octet ``blacked out,'' (e.g., 192. 168.77.99 could go to 192.168.77.0). In this case, we have replaced the last eight bits of the IP address with 0's (Though some would call this truncation). However, we did not have to choose to use 0's. In fact, we allow the user to choose the constant with which to overwrite values. For example, we could anonymize the hostnames by replacing every hostname in a log with host@example.net.

Truncation

Truncation works by taking a field and selecting a point after which all bits are annihilated. For a string value, one chooses some middle point - not necessarily defined as a fixed number of characters from the beginning - and cuts the string off after that point. For example, one could truncate the domain information from e-mail address so that ``user@example.net'' is replaced with simply ``user''.

Truncation will shorten strings, but this is a problem for fixed length binary values. One could simply replace all trailing values with 0's, but we have called this black marker anonymization. Keeping with the idea that truncating is shortening a value, we pick a point for truncation and right shift until all bits to the right of this point are shifted off the end. For example, consider IP addresses as a binary 32 bit unsigned integer. The IP address 192.168.77.88 could have the last 16 bits truncated which would result in 0.0.192.168. Sometimes, we do not want to work on a number as binary when truncate. Take the decimal number 11977. We could truncate the last two digits, instead of bits, and come up with 119.

Note that truncation and black marker still are not 100 percent mutually exclusive. For example, truncating all 32 bits and replacing all IP's with the constant address of 0.0.0.0 will have the same result.

Permutation

In the most general sense, a permutation is a one-to-one and onto mapping on a set. Thus, even a block cipher is a type of permutation. There are many ways that permutations can be used. For larger binary fields, it usually makes sense to use a strong, cryptographic block cipher. Thus, if one wishes to use the same mapping later, they just save the key. This is excellent for fields like the 128 bit IPv6 address. However, there are no strong 32 bit block ciphers to do the same for IPv4 addresses. Using a larger block would require padding, and the output of the anonymization function would be larger than the input. In these cases, one can use tables to create random permutations. The problem is, of course, that one cannot save these tables as easily as a cryptographic key to keep mappings consistent between logs anonymized at different times.

In addition to random permutations that are cryptographically strong, there is sometimes a need to use structure preserving permutations for certain types of data. When differences between values must be preserved - often the case with timestamps - a simple shift can be used. Shifting all values by a certain number may be an acceptable way to permute values in some instances. For IP addresses, the subnet structure may need to be preserved without knowing the actual subnets (e.g., when analyzing router data). Prefix-preserving pseudonymization is appropriate here. This is a type of permutation uniquely applied to IP addresses, and we discuss it in detail in an example of anonymizing netfilter logs in the next section.

Hash

Cryptographic hash functions can be useful for anonymization of both text and binary data. The problem with binary data, of course, is that one must often truncate the result of a hash function to the shorter length of the field. This avoids breaking log analysis tools that operate on those logs. This also means that the hash function is weaker and has more collisions. For fields 32 bits or smaller, dictionary attacks on hashes become very practical. For example, it is well within the capability of a modern adversary to create a table of hashes for every possible IPv4 address. The space of possible values being hashed is too small. Thus, hash functions must be used carefully and only when the possibility of collision in the mappings is acceptable. Often, it is better to use a random permutation. For string values, FLAIM outputs the hash in an ASCII representation of the hexadecimal value.

HMAC

HMACs (Hash Message Authentication Codes) are essentially hashes seeded with some secret data. Adversaries cannot compute the HMAC themselves without access to the key, and thus they cannot perform the dictionary attacks that they could on simple hashes. In cases where hashes are vulnerable to such attacks, HMACs make sense. However, HMACs, like hashes, are inappropriate when collisions are unacceptable.

Partitioning

Partitioning is just what it sounds like. The set of possible values is partitioned into subsets - possibly by a well-defined equivalence relation - and a canonical example for each subset is chosen. Then, the anonymization function replaces every value with the canonical value from the subset to which it belongs. Black marker anonymization and truncation are really just special cases of partitioning. For example, say that the last eight bits of IPv4 addresses are ``blacked out'' with 0's. Then the set of IP addresses is being partitioned into class C networks. Furthermore, the canonical representation is simply the network address of the class C subnet. However, partitioning is not always so simplistic, and our next type of anonymization algorithm is a very unique type of partitioning for timestamps.

Time Unit Annihilation

Time unit annihilation is a special type of partitioning for time and date information. Timestamps can be broken down into year, month, day, hour, minute and second subfields. When this is done, one can annihilate any subset of these time units by replacing them with 0. For instance, if she annihilates the hour, minute and second information, the time has been removed but the date information retained - actually, a type of black marker. If she wipes out the year, month and day, the date information is removed but the time is unaffected. It is clear that this is a very general type of partitioning, but it still cannot partition in arbitrary ways. For instance, it cannot break time up into 10 minute units.

Enumeration

Enumeration can be very general, though FLAIM currently uses it as just an option for timestamps. However, enumeration would work on any well-ordered set. Enumeration will first sort the records based on this field, choose a value for a first record, and for each successive record, it will choose a greater value. This preserves the order but removes any specific information. When applied to timestamps, it preserves the sequence of events, but it removes information about when they started or how far apart two events are temporally. A straightforward implementation could sort, choose a random starting time, and space all distinct timestamps apart by one second. Note that the output doesn't actually have to be reordered records. For example, the set {1.2,5.6, 7,0.3,9.3,4.8} could be enumerated with the elements left in place as follows {2,4,5,1,6,3}. However, sorting on the anonymized and unanonymized field values would produce the same result as order is preserved by enumeration.

Netfilter Anonymization: An Extended Example

In this section, we look at how we have applied the various anonymization algorithms described above to netfilter logs - the first type of log we supported with FLAIM. Since all of these fields are also found in pcap traces, we can apply these same algorithms to pcap logs. We describe which algorithms make sense for each field and how they are uniquely adapted to each data type (e.g., how default values change).

Time Stamps

FLAIM supports three methods of timestamp anonymization. As with any data type, we must choose a canonical form for the field. We are using the traditional UNIX epoch format, i.e., the number of seconds since Jan 1st 1970. This is fastest for two of the three applicable anonymization algorithms. Because timestamps often occur in pairs, with a starting and ending time, we optionally allow a handle to a secondary timestamp field to be specified in the anonymization policy. If the secondary timestamp is specified in the anonymization options, it is adjusted with the first timestamp so that the difference between the two values remains the same. For example, this could be used to keep flow duration the same in NetFlows.

Time Unit Annihilation

FLAIM can use time unit annihilation, as described in the previous section, to anonymize timestamps. Timestamps are converted in the anonymization engine from the canonical format to an internal structure to perform this type of anonymization. Then they are converted back.

Random Shift

In some situations it may be important to know how far apart two events are temporally without knowing exactly when they happened. For this reason, a log or set of logs can be anonymized at once such that all timestamps are shifted by the same random number, in seconds. We call this method of anonymization a Random Time Shift. As noted in the previous section, this is a special type of permutation.

We allow a lower and upper bound for the random number to be set for two reasons. First, an upper bound can prevent a shift so far into the future that it overflows the 32 bit timestamp field and events wrap-around back to Jan. 1st 1970. Second, by setting the lower and upper bound equal, you can control exactly how much the time stamps shift. This allows you to keep the anonymization mapping consistent between different runs of FLAIM.

Enumeration

We implement the enumeration method of anonymization described in general terms earlier in this section. FLAIM chooses a random starting time for the first record, and each subsequent timestamp - if differing from the previous - is one second later. The end result is that one can tell if two records happened at the same time or one before the other, but they can know nothing else. Implementing the enumeration algorithm exactly as described does pose one problem, however. The presorting can be slow on even medium sized logs and nearly impossible with streamed data. Though logs are not always presorted, they are often close to being in order. Often they are simply out of order because of clock skew between different data sources.

In our implementation, we exploit the fact that timestamps are often just slightly out of order (e.g., NetFlows are nearly in order by ending timestamp) and buffer events to sort locally. This buffer is used like a sliding window in which only events within the window can be sorted. Events before the window are written out already, and events after window have not yet been read. Since events are usually not terribly disordered, this sorts records with great accuracy often when using a small window. The size of the window is user-selectable. Larger windows must be used for logs that are more disordered. We have found this to be a useful way to allow users to select a level of compromise between efficiency and accuracy.

IP Addresses

We have implemented four types of IP address anonymization in FLAIM: truncation, black marker, prefix-preserving, and random permutation. Nearly all of the log anonymization tools out there use one of these algorithms or hashing - which can be easily brute-forced on the small 32 bit space for IPv4 addresses. Others are slight variations, such as permutations that fix a hard-coded set of internal IP addresses. In FLAIM, the canonical form for an IPv4 address is a 32 bit unsigned integer.

Truncation and Black Marker

FLAIM will truncate IP addresses from 1 to 32 least significant bits. Similarly, one can black out any number of least significant bits and replace those bits with any constant.

Random Permutation

We also support anonymization by creating random permutations on the set of possible IP addresses. This permutation is then applied to each IP address in the log. We implement this algorithm through use of two hash tables for efficient lookup. One hash table is used to store mappings from unanonymized to anonymized IP addresses. The other hash table is used to store all of the anonymized addresses so we can check if an address has already been used when creating a new mapping. Because the first table is indexed by unanonymized addresses, the whole table would have to be searched for a free anonymized address if we did not use a second hash table. In this way, we trade a little storage for a large computational speed-up. For even higher space efficiency we could use a Bloom filter [3] to store the set of used IP addresses. Since Bloom filters never give a false negative, we would not map two distinct IP addresses to the same value, and thus our function would remain injective.

Sometimes it is desirable to fix certain elements within the permutation. Say that an organization wants all external IP addresses to remain unchanged. This sort of less random permutation can be implemented by simply pre-filling the tables with entries that fix this subset of elements. Future versions of FLAIM may allow one to specify a CIDR addressed subnet to fix in the permutation.

Prefix-preserving Permutation

Prefix-preserving pseudonymization uses a special type of permutation that has a unique structure preserving property. The property is that two anonymized IP addresses match on a prefix of n bits if and only if the unanonymized addresses match on n bits. This preserves subnet structures and is often preferred to random permutations, but the simple fact that there are many times fewer permutations of this type makes it weaker.

As a general principle, cryptographic algorithms that preserve structure are more open to attack, and this algorithm is not an exception. For example, an adversary that injects traffic to be recognized later not only gleans information about the addresses she specifically attacked, but she also learns many of the unanonymized bits of addresses that share prefixes with the addresses she attacks. For this type of anonymization we implemented the Crypto-PAn [20, 21] algorithm and generate keys by hashing a passphrase the user provides. In this way, tables are not used, and logs can more easily be anonymized in parallel across different locations. This is a sensible choice when an injection attack is unlikely to be effective (e.g., a one-time release of logs with a particular key) and the subnet structure is very important.

MAC Addresses

MAC addresses have traditionally been globally unique, and the first three of six bytes are usually indicative of the network card manufacturer. As such they are somewhat sensitive. However, proliferation of virtualization means that MAC addresses are not always globally unique now. In addition, many hardware devices allow you to change the MAC (e.g., SOHO routers). FLAIM supports three types of anonymization for MAC addresses and uses a six byte unsigned char array as the canonical representation.

Truncation and Black Marker

FLAIM will truncate or black out any number of least significant bits. This could allow one to remove all identifying information but the manufacturer or allow one to obscure the entire address.

Random Permutation

It may be important to distinguish network interfaces within a log, but not to know the specific MAC. In fact, this is often the case since knowing the specific MAC usually does not get you any information except for the manufacturer unless you have access to special outside knowledge (e.g., access to ARP or DHCP logs). For this reason we have an algorithm that creates a random permutation of MAC addresses. It is implemented in the same manner as the random permutation of IP addresses.

Hostnames

FLAIM can also anonymize hostnames that are both local and fully qualified with domain names. The canonical form of a hostname is a string. If there are periods in the hostname, the host part is to the left of the first period and the domain name is the part to the right of the first period. Whether or not the hostname is fully qualified, can make a difference in the anonymization function.

Black Marker

Black marker anonymization replaces fields with constants. In the context of hostnames, FLAIM can be configured to black marker anonymize just the host part or the entire name. If it is configured to black marker anonymize just the host part, the host part of the name is replaced with the string ``host''. If the hostname is fully qualified, the domain name is left untouched. For example, a hostname of ``vorlon'' would be replaced with ``host''. A hostname of ``vorlon.ncsa.uiuc.edu'' would be replaced with ``host.ncsa.uiuc.edu''.

Black marker anonymization can also be configured to replace the entire hostname. If the hostname is fully qualified, it is replaced with ``host.network.net'', otherwise it is simply replaced with ``host''. In addition to setting the black marker anonymization to the host or full name, one can specify the constant strings with which to replace the names.

Hash

Another anonymization algorithm available for hostnames is a simple hash converted into ASCII output. While we could hash just the host part and leave the network part alone, this is not very useful since the valid hostnames on a given network can be easily enumerated in most cases, and thus the hash function could be brute-forced by a simple dictionary attack. Therefore, we only hash the entire string.

HMACs

As noted earlier in this section, HMACs can be used instead of hashes when there is concern of brute-force attacks. Future revisions of FLAIM will add support for using HMACs to anonymize hostnames.

Port Numbers

We have implemented three methods of anonymization for port numbers in FLAIM. The canonical representation for port numbers is a 16 bit unsigned integer.

Black Marker

FLAIM supports black marker anonymization of this field, replacing every port number with port 0.

Bilateral Classification

We call the second method of port number anonymization we implement bilateral classification. This is really just a special type of partitioning. Often the port number is useless unless one knows the exact port number to correlate with a service. However, there is one important piece of information that does not require one to know the actual port number: whether or not the port is ephemeral. In this way ports can be classified as being below 1024 or greater than or equal to 1024. The canonical value for privileged ports is 0, and the canonical value for ephemeral ports is 65535.

Random Permutation

In some cases it may not be necessary to know what the port is, but only that some ports are seeing particular traffic patterns. Such is the case in detecting worms and P2P traffic. Such traffic has unique characteristics, and knowing the exact port number may not even be that useful. For example, a new worm may appear on an unexpected port. If you are just counting on the port number, you will not recognize this new worm. However, if you look for worm-like behaviors appearing on a fixed port, you can detect the worm [22]. Similarly, knowing the specific port of a piece of P2P software is becoming less useful, as the ports are becoming dynamic. On a particular machine the port will be fixed for a while, but that particular machine often chooses a random port. Thus, detection must depend on elements other than knowing the specific port number.

Randomly permuting the port numbers does not affect the ability to detect worms or P2P traffic using these more advanced methodologies since such services do not always use the same predictable port numbers. However, bilateral classification or black marker anonymization may affect such methodologies as it is no longer easy to separate the traffic from different applications on the same machine. For example, a machine may have a P2P application on port 7777 and a web server on port 8080. Depending on the log and the specific behavior of the P2P application, it may be difficult to detect the P2P application as all of its traffic is aggregated with the legitimate web server. In this situation, a random permutation provides the maximum amount of anonymization possible to complete the analysis.

Network Protocol

FLAIM supports black marker anonymization of the protocol field. The canonical form of this field is an unsigned eight bit integer corresponding to the values assigned by IANA [6] (e.g., TCP is 6, UDP is 17, ICMP is 1). If this field is anonymized, all protocols are replaced with 255, the IANA reserved protocol number. For many network logs it makes no sense to anonymize this field alone. For example, in a pcap log the TCP headers will give away the protocol even if the protocol field is eliminated in the IP header.

IP ID Number

We support black marker anonymization of ID numbers because their use is moderately sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting. All ID's are replaced with 0 in this case. The canonical form of this field is an unsigned 16 bit integer.

IP Options

We support black marker anonymization of IP options because their use is moderately sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting and because they can carry significant information in covert channels. Specifically, we can see their usefulness in data injection and probing attacks. The canonical form for this field is a string in the same format that iptables uses to represent this variable length field. If black marker anonymization is chosen, FLAIM replaces the string with the null string.

Misc IP Fields

We support black marker anonymization of Type-of-Service and Time-to-Live IP fields because their use is very sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting. Their canonical form is the same as the protocol field, and we replace all values with 255 when performing this type of anonymization.

Don't Fragment Bit

We support black marker anonymization of Don't-Fragment bits because this field is very sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting. Nothing smaller than a byte is sent to FLAIM, so any flags or boolean values have the canonical form of an unsigned char. If the value is non-zero, it is treated as if the bit is set to true. If the value is zero, it is interpreted that bit is not set or set to false. Thus, when FLAIM anonymizes this field, it simply replaces instances of the field with 0.

TCP Window Size

We support black marker anonymization of the TCP window size because its use is very susceptible to passive OS fingerprinting. The canonical form of this field is a 16 bit unsigned integer. If anonymization of this field is done, all window sizes are set to 0.

Initial TCP Sequence Number

The canonical form of this field is an unsigned 16 bit integer. Because initial TCP sequence numbers are moderately sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting, FLAIM can be used to black marker anonymize TCP sequence numbers, replacing all sequence numbers with 0.

While doing this is not syntactically breaking logs, it will lead to semantically nonsensical values. Log analyzers should not break while parsing logs anonymized in this way, but their output could be quite unpredictable when fields like this are anonymized in such a manner. More complex anonymization algorithms that try to identify when packets are part of the same flow could be used, instead. Their drawback is that the anonymization of one field becomes dependent on other fields within a record. FLAIM is certainly general enough to do this, and we do in fact handle relations between timestamp fields within a record. However, for a field that has seen lesser demand for anonymization, we have chosen to perform a simpler type of anonymization in this first instance of FLAIM. User demand will determine if more complex solutions are desired for some of these fields.

TCP Options

We support black marker anonymization of TCP options because their use is moderately sensitive to passive OS fingerprinting and because they can carry significant information in covert channels. Specifically, we can see their usefulness in data injection and probing attacks. The canonical form for this field is a string in the same format that iptables uses to represent this variable length field. If black marker anonymization is chosen, FLAIM replaces the string with the null string.

ICMP Codes and Types

NetFlow records and firewall logs can indicate both the ICMP code and type without the packet data. Truncation makes no sense since there is no structure to the specific code and type numbers. Permutations and hashing seem to offer no utility over simple black marker anonymization. Thus, FLAIM currently supports just black marker anonymization of these fields. The canonical form for these fields is the unsigned char. The value with which these fields are replaced is 0.

Figure 4 summarizes the anonymization methods that can be applied to the fields in the IP table logs.



Figure 4: NetFilter Anonymization Options with FLAIM.

Related Work

While there have been several anonymization tools created for specific logs, they have not been very flexible to date. The anonymization primitives used have mostly been simplistic, and anonymization is typically done on only one field with no options as to what anonymization algorithm is used. Thus, in the current state of matters, we have a collection of ad hoc tools created for the specific needs of individual organizations, rather than flexible tools used by many.

One of the major results in log anonymization - one that changed how a lot of tools anonymize data - was the development of prefix-preserving IP address anonymization. The most commonly anonymized field in security and network relevant logs is the IP address. It was long desired to both preserve the subnet structure like truncation, and also have a one-to-one mapping between anonymized and unanonymized addresses. The solution was to create prefix-preserving permutations on IP addresses. Mathematically, we define such a mapping as follows. Let be a permutation on the set of IP addresses, and let Pn() be the function that truncates an IP address to n bits. Then is a prefix-preserving permutation of IP addresses if 1 ≤ n ≤ 32: Pn(x) = Pn(y) if and only if Pn((x)) = Pn((y)).

In recent years, several tools have been made that make use of this newer, structure preserving form of IP address anonymization. Many are based on tcpdpriv, a free program that performs prefix-preserving pcap trace anonymization using tables. Because of the use of tables, it is difficult to process logs in parallel with this tool. In [20, 21], Xu, et al., created a prefix-preserving IP pseudonymizer that overcomes this limitation by eliminating the need for centralized tables to be shared and edited by multiple entities. Instead, with their algorithm Crypto-PAn, one only needs to distribute a short key between entities that wish to pseudonymize consistently with each other. Their work made prefix-preserving pseudonymization much more practical. In [14], we used Crypto-PAn with our own key generator to perform prefix-preserving IP address pseudonymization on a particular format of NetFlow logs. We later implemented Crypto-PAn in Java as part of a more advanced NetFlow anonymizer we call CANINE [17]. CANINE supports several NetFlow formats and anonymizes the eight most common fields within NetFlows.

In [18], Sobirey, et al., first suggested privacy-enhanced intrusion detection using pseudonyms and provided the motivation for the work of Biskup, et al., in [1, 2]. While the work in [9, 1, 2] does deal with log data and anonymization, their goals are significantly different than ours. All three works deal specifically with pseudonymization in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). The adversary in their model is the system administrator, and the one requiring protection is the user of the system. In our case, we instead assume that the system/network administrators have access to raw logs, and we are trying to protect the systems from those who would see the shared logs. To contrast how this makes a difference, consider that in their scenario the server addresses and services running are not even sensitive - just information that could identify clients of the system. Furthermore, we do not require the ability to reverse pseudonyms.

However, since the system/network administrators in their scenario do not have raw data, the privacy officer must help the system security officer reverse pseudonyms if alerts indicate suspicious behavior. In [1, 2], they take this further and try to support automatic re-identification if a certain threshold of events is met. In that way, their pseudonymizer must be intelligent, like an IDS, predicting when re-identification may be necessary and thus altering how it pseudonymizes data. They also differ from us in that they create transactional pseudonyms, so a pseudonym this week might map to a different entity the next week. We, however, desire consistency with respect to time for logs to be useful. Lastly, all of the anonymizing solutions in these papers filter log entries and remove them if they are not relevant to the IDS; we endeavor to dispose of no entries because completeness is very important for logs released to the general research populace. All-in-all, we are looking at the more general problem of sharing arbitrary logs, rather than hooking anonymization into IDS's or other tools for very specific purposes.

In [4], Flegel takes his previous work in privacy preserving intrusion detection [1, 2] and changes the motivation slightly. Here, he imagines a scenario of web servers volunteering to protect the privacy of visitors from themselves, and he believes IP addresses of visitors need pseudonymization. However, to a web server IP addresses already act as a pseudonym protecting the client's identity, since ISPs rarely volunteer IP-to-person mappings to non-government entities. Though the motivation differs slightly, the system described is the same underlying threshold based pseudonymization system, and the focus of this paper is really about the implementation and performance of the system. As such, the results of [4] can be applied to [1, 2].

In [10], Pang, et al., developed a new packet anonymizer that anonymizes packet payloads as well as transactional information, though their methodology only works with application level protocols that their anonymizer understands: HTTP, FTP, Finger, Ident and SMTP. The process can also alter logs significantly, losing fragmentation information, the size and number of packets and information about retransmissions; thus skewing timestamps, sequence numbers and checksums. While their anonymizer is limited in its capabilities, it is fail-safe because it only leaves information in the packets that it can parse and understand. Further, they create a classification of anonymization techniques and a classification of attacks against anonymization schemes that we found useful. We use a similar classification which is based off of their work.

Lincoln, et al., [8] proposed a log repository framework that enables community alert aggregation and correlation, while maintaining privacy for alert contributors. However, the anonymization scheme in the paper is partially based on hashing IP addresses. Such a scheme is always vulnerable to dictionary attacks. Moreover, their scheme mixes the hashes with HMACs and truncates the hashes/MACs to 32 bits, both actions which result in more hash collisions and inconsistent mappings. Finally, their suggested use of re-keying by the repository destroys the correlation between repositories and therefore limits the view to a single repository.

Most recently, Pang, et al., have taken a new approach to packet trace anonymization, ignoring packet data [11]. Their new tool anonymizes many fields in pcap logs, more than any other tool to date. The algorithm options to anonymize these fields are very customized to their specific needs which they describe through the paper much like a case study. However, they leave hooks into the software that would allow someone to create new algorithms to anonymize any TCP/IP fields in new ways. The difference between our work is that theirs is (1) restricted to pcap headers, (2) is not a modular framework with a clean API, and (3) not many options are available for any particular field, though the ability for someone else to code another algorithm is there. Another way to look at the difference is that they just look at pcap headers and leave open the ability for others to add anonymization algorithms to their parser. We create a suite of anonymization algorithms with a policy manager, and recognizing that many logs share common fields, we leave open the ability to add new parsers.

Software Availability

FLAIM software is available at http://flaim.ncsa.uiuc.edu for download. This software is released open source under the University of Illinois open source license. The license and contact information can also be found on the FLAIM web site.

Conclusions and Future Work

As we can see, the ability to share logs can vastly improve the detection of zero-day exploits and other network attacks. In addition, the sharing of network traces will allow multiple organizations to pursue research on real-life examples, instead of simulations. The main problem with sharing logs is to make sure that sensitive data is not compromised by sharing the logs. But while we should make sure sensitive information is not distributed, we must also make sure enough information is retained for analysis. We propose that anonymization can be used to sanitize the sensitive information in a log while keeping enough information for analysis. Our goal is to explore the trade-offs between the strength of an anonymization algorithm (the amount of information it hides) and its utility (the usefulness of the log after anonymization). We have developed a tool, the Framework for Log Anonymization and Information Management (FLAIM), which we will use to explore these issues.

Log anonymization tools to date have been created in an ad hoc manner for the specific needs of individual organizations. FLAIM is immanently more flexible than the log anonymization tools to date. FLAIM is extensible, supports multi-level anonymization with a rich supply of anonymization algorithms and supports multiple log formats. We have discussed its goals and architecture in depth, and found it to perform well at anonymizing large log files (over 40,000 records per second[Note 2]). With the release of FLAIM, organizations are now able to leverage our work to address their unique log sharing needs.

FLAIM was developed with the purpose of aiding security engineers in safely sharing security related data with other professionals. While this is still the main goal of FLAIM, it is important to note that FLAIM can be used on any type of data, provided a module is written for it. We have seen that there is a need for anonymization to allow the further progress of science. Because of FLAIM's separation of the file I/O from the actual anonymization, FLAIM can provide a general framework for anonymization of any data. Any developer can make use of the diverse set of anonymization algorithms we provide to anonymize their data. By releasing FLAIM as an open source tool, and by creating a simple module API, we hope that many professionals will build modules for FLAIM.

While FLAIM is a capable tool, there are always enhancements that can be made. New parsing modules may be written for parsing additional log types (We intend to create new modules for more types of system logs and the IDMEF IDS format). These parsing modules can also be enhanced to support streaming or real-time anonymization. We also foresee interest in a daemon mode for FLAIM that would make it easier to integrate with web services and other online tools. Most interesting to us, is the creation of a tool to help generate anonymization policies. It is always challenging to determine how best to anonymize the data for a particular application. We envision a tool that asks users a series of questions to determine how to anonymize a log, and then it would output a valid XML policy for FLAIM. As we receive feedback from users, we expect to have a more solid grasp of which features are most useful.

Author Biographies

Adam Slagell received a B.S. and M.S. in mathematics at Northern Illinois University. Afterwards, he received an M.S. in computer science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2003. After obtaining his second masters degree, he joined the security research group at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications where he is still employed. He can be reached electronically at .

Kiran Lakkaraju is a Ph.D. student in the Computer Science Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has been working for the National Center for Supercomputing Applications for four years on projects involving security visualization and anonymization. His other research interests include multi-agent systems and language evolution. He can be reached electronically at .

Katherine (Xiaolin) Luo is currently studying for her masters degree in the general engineering department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is also working as a graduate research assistant for the LAIM group at the NCSA, and is one of the main developers of the FLAIM tool.

Acknowledgments

This material is based, in part, upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0524643, and the Office of Naval Research through the National Center for Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the Office of Naval Research.

We would like to thank Greg Colombo, Vikram Dhar and Yifan Li who have contributed their programming skills to the development of FLAIM. We would also like to thank Jun Wang for his help reviewing this paper before submission, and Bill Yurcik for help in various ways.

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Footnotes:
Note 1: Note: At this time FLAIM modules exist for netfilter logs, pcap traces and nfdump format NetFlows. More modules are under development.
Note 2: Tests were performed on a machine with four 3.0 GHz Xeon CPUS and 2 GB of RAM against an nfdump log with 5 million flows.
Last changed: 1 Dec. 2006 jel