LISA '05 Paper
[LISA '05 Technical Program]
A Case Study in Configuration Management Tool Deployment
Narayan Desai, Rick Bradshaw, Scott Matott, Sandra
Bittner, Susan Coghlan,
Rémy Evard, Cory Lueninghoener, Ti Leggett,
John-Paul Navarro, Gene Rackow, Craig Stacey, and Tisha
- Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne
Pp. 39-46 of the Proceedings of LISA '05: Nineteenth
Systems Administration Conference,
(San Diego, CA: USENIX
Association, December 2005).
While configuration management systems are generally regarded as
useful, their deployment process is not well understood or documented.
In this paper, we present a case study in configuration management
tool deployment. We describe the motivating factors and both the
technical considerations and the social issues involved in this
process. Our discussion includes an analysis of the overall effect on
the system management model and the tasks performed by administrators.
System administration is, at its heart, the profession of helping
people to use computers. System administrators are domain experts who
provide impedance matching between users' desires and computers. The
expertise of system administrators is manifested in their choices of
computer hardware and software and of system configuration.
Environments are constantly changing; the need for timely software
updates and frequent configuration changes has never been greater.
Configuration management tools provide different levels of automation
and representational models, but all have the same basic goal: to help
in the system configuration process.
Nevertheless, adoption of configuration management systems has
lagged substantially behind tool development. The explanation rests
largely with the up-front cost of building an adequate representation
of an environment, but the problem can also be traced to the
requirement that administrators change their administration methods.
This change makes the configuration management adoption process quite
costly and time consuming.
The Mathematics and Computer Science Division of Argonne National
Laboratory consists of nearly 200 researchers, programmers, students,
and visitors. The division is home to several hundred workstations,
three large clusters, and other high-performance computing resources.
One group maintains this diverse set of resources. Recognizing the
need for more efficient management mechanisms, members of the system
staff have contributed to a number of system management research
efforts [6, 4, 7].
In the summer of 2004, the group decided to deploy Bcfg2 , a
configuration management tool developed in house. As of May 2005, much
of the deployment has been completed. Bcfg2 manages the general
infrastructure and two clusters and is being deployed on another
cluster and on an IBM Blue Gene/L system. The general infrastructure
is extremely complex and involves the largest number of
administrators, hence; we focus on this particular deployment.
This paper documents our experiences and lessons learned in
adopting a configuration management tool. We discuss the goals that
prompted this adoption and describe the deployment process in terms of
both technical and - more important - social issues. The adoption of
Bcfg2 has dramatically changed the procedures and model used by system
administrators in the division. We discuss these outcomes in detail.
One cannot talk about configuration management without including
technical aspects that are likely tool-specific. As the same time, we
believe that many of the issues we faced and benefits we reaped in
deploying Bcfg2 are intrinsic to the adoption of any configuration
management system. Where possible, we avoid the discussion of
Since configuration management has been recognized as a problem
for quite some time [4, 9], numerous tools have been written to
address this task. Many of the tools, in particular LCFG  and
Quattor , can cause large changes in management methods; our
discussion of Bcfg2  is especially applicable to such tools. Other
tools, such as SystemImager  and CFEngine , have a model that is
not substantially different from manual system administration; for
these tools our discussion of deployment issues is less applicable.
In this section, we describe the overall goals that motivated our
adoption of Bcfg2. We also briefly describe Bcfg2, in order to provide
an understanding of the outcomes we achieved.
The bulk of the benefits we hoped to achieve with better
configuration management were efficiency related. We were spending an
inordinate amount of time performing software upgrades and applying
security patches. In partial response to this problem, we found
ourselves faced with the deployment of a new base operating system,
Debian Sarge. This occasion provided an ideal opportunity to add a new
configuration management system into the environment.
We wanted a centralized location where all configuration
information for all clients could be stored and coordinated. This
requirement raised a variety of expressivity issues. We wanted all
aspects of the configuration specification to be as terse as possible.
That is, we wanted to express all required configurations in a way
that minimized redundancy in the specification. Similarly, we wanted
configuration changes to be made in as simple a way as possible. For
example, adding a software upgrade to all systems or uniformly
changing the contents of a configuration file should be trivial.
We also wanted a high-level interface into the configuration
management that allowed configuration specification based on machine
role. For example, it should be easy to ask for another instance of a
given role, like a web server.
Another important goal was to eliminate configuration state local
to clients. That is, all machines should match their configuration
specification. Once no local configuration exists, no local
configuration data will be lost in the event of a machine rebuild.
Adherence to this goal enables machines to be trivially rebuilt.
Furthermore, once the configuration specification contains all
configuration directives needed to produce a goal, this goal can be
Finally, we wanted good practices encoded in the configuration
management tool. The tool should perform operations in the safest
manner possible. It should also make every attempt to ensure that new
configuration specifications are activated.
While the Bcfg2 architecture is not the main focus of this paper,
several details are required to understand our deployment. Bcfg2 has a
client-server architecture. The server is responsible for building
configurations for clients, based on a global configuration
specification. This specification contains high-level directives for
clients, referred to as the metadata, and a set of configuration rules
that can be used with the metadata to produce literal client
configurations. That is, they contain information that needs no
further processing for client use. These configurations are also
assumed to be comprehensive; they contain information for all aspects
of client configuration. For example, a software package or service
that is active on a client will be included in its configuration. Any
installed configuration entities not listed in the configuration are
flagged as "extra." The Bcfg2 client uses heuristics to discover
this "extra" configuration.
The Bcfg2 client connects to the server and downloads its
configuration. It then inventories the local system and compares this
inventory to the configuration specification. Any discrepancies found
in this process are flagged for later correction. Next, the Bcfg2
client runs its heuristics to find extra configuration. Anything
located in this pass is similarly flagged for later correction. After
the detection work is done, the Bcfg2 client rectifies any conditions
previously found. This behavior is tunable; dry-run and extra
configuration removal modes are available.
Once the client has completed operations, it uploads statistics to
the server. The information includes the overall machine state (clean
or dirty) and lists of the failing and modified configuration entries.
This information is stored on the server and can be used to generate
nightly reports about the overall state of the network and its
correspondence to the configuration specification.
Deploying Bcfg2 in our environment took a substantial amount of
time. Our experiences since its deployment, however, have more than
justified this investment. In this section we describe the technical
and social issues involved in the process. Following this, we discuss
various improvements to the administrative process enabled by this
Deploying Bcfg2 took approximately four months of work performed
primarily by one person. As is frequently the case with systems like
this, the first 90 percent of the work was completed in the first six
weeks, while numerous small issues were resolved over the course of
the next 10 weeks.
Deployment was initially undertaken as part of a base OS upgrade,
moving from Redhat 7.3 to Debian Sarge. We chose this occasion because
our previous experience with a mid-stream switch to Bcfg1 had proved
problematic. Basically, systems managed in an ad hoc fashion tend to
have a lot of configuration inconsistencies. Ensuring that these
machines can be cleanly rebuilt by using a configuration management
tool can be quite difficult. The introduction of a configuration
management tool is possible but must be carefully performed. In
contrast, the deployment of new machines can be easily done, as the
deployment process is available for examination.
The first goal was to get an automated build system working
properly. Our environment has two main types of machines: workstations
and servers. We decided to use SystemImager  for initial client
installations, calling Bcfg2 before initial reboot. This approach
ensures that machines come up properly configured and secure upon
first reboot. Two profiles for Bcfg2 were created and made selectable
from the initial SystemImager boot menu.
Creating the configuration profiles for workstations and servers
was not difficult. This process consisted of specifying all
configuration aspects of workstations, including all environment-
specific modifications. A workstation configuration had been created
for Bcfg1 and was easily migrated to Bcfg2. Had this not been the
case, the creation of an initial configuration would have taken a few
days. This process consists of recording all important aspects of
configuration in the central specification. Aspects can be quickly
incorporated into the specification. Our workstation configuration
initially consisted of nearly 1,100 configuration aspects. Once this
process was completed, we constructed a server configuration as a
subset of the workstation configuration, since many of the
configuration aspects of these classes are similar.
Once a simple build mechanism was in place, we rebuilt
administrator desktops and some test servers using the new image and
management system. In one case, the administrator ran with two
desktops concurrently for several weeks, in order to find subtle
aspects of needed workstation configurations not yet included in the
workstation profile. The process paid a big dividend; by the time
"normal" users started using workstations based on the new build,
few configuration problems remained.
After the new system became full-featured and stable enough, we
started to allow users to request machines with it. These early users
provided the remainder of input regarding missing configuration from
the new workstations. After several of these users had successfully
used new-build machines for some time, we began upgrades for the rest
of the division.
In this stage the simplified build process was particularly
beneficial. Three people performed most of the workstation rebuilds.
The initial target was to complete most machine upgrades in four
weeks. Desktop rebuilds were a simple process. Each machine has a
local scratch disk, which gets cleaned upon rebuild. Users save any
needed data stored there. Once this data is saved, rebuilds can occur
at any time and take 30 minutes. All user interactions occur in the
first three minutes of the process; the rest of the process can
complete unattended. In the course of a month, nearly 80 desktop
machines were upgraded.
After completing the workstation upgrades, we shifted our focus to
the server machines. While the server profile had been used to build
new machines, many existing servers remained unmanaged by Bcfg2. As
these servers were replaced, we encountered a whole new set of issues
relating to tool deployment - issues that were generally related not
to tool completeness but rather to the way configuration changes were
propagated to machines. For example, certain machines were deemed too
important to perform automatic changes.
This realization necessitated a major change in our deployment
strategy. Initially, all machines had called Bcfg2 each night, and all
required changes were performed. On workstations, this model was good
enough; while these machines are important, they don't cause
congestive failures when problems occur. For servers, however, we
needed to run Bcfg2 in dry-run mode each night and send its state to
the relevant administrator. While examining this issue, we also
realized that cluster nodes should run Bcfg2 in yet another way:
between jobs, in order to prevent interference with user calculations.
These experiences shifted our focus from a tool-based one to an
administrator experience-based one. Initially, we were quite concerned
about tool correctness and completeness. As Bcfg2 proved itself and
bugs were fixed, our confidence in its correctness greatly increased.
Also, our workstation configuration proved to be as complicated as any
other in our environment, so the configuration specification process
for our servers was fairly simple.
Our change in focus amounted to the realization that the tool
client-side functionality was not sufficient. The tool must also
provide enough information for administrators to make effective
decisions as conveniently as possible. Moreover, it must supply
configuration state information in a convenient way. From this point
onward, nearly all development focused on an information presentation
system to provide a sort of scoreboard for the entire network and its
The deployment culminated with the implementation of a robust
reporting infrastructure. This infrastructure provides periodic
information about the current configuration state of all clients, the
time of their last contact with Bcfg2, and a list of pending
configuration changes. The information allows administrators to
observe the logic employed by Bcfg2 during normal operations. This
single factor had more impact on administrator trust in Bcfg2 than all
The reporting system results in emails, Web pages, or RSS feeds
that contain information about either specific hosts or the overall
status of all Bcfg2 clients. Administrators can subscribe to reports
about particular clients of interest, or all systems, enabling the
detection of two common problems: clients not receiving configuration
updates and clients unable to perform needed configuration updates.
Administrators can also observe the operations taken by Bcfg2 over
These reports create a picture of the entire network that gives
discussions about configuration a basis in fact. The reports greatly
improved our understanding of our systems, their configuration, and
its modification patterns. More important, administrators grew to
trust Bcfg2, and hence allow the remainder of our network, composed of
our most important machines, to be rebuilt and managed by Bcfg2.
While the technical aspects of Bcfg2 deployment were complex,
managing the social aspects of the deployment was far more difficult.
This process occurred in an ad hoc way in our group and could have
been substantially improved had we initially known the related
Adoption of any configuration management system is a stressful
process. Configuration management tools affect the whole of the system
management process. All administrators are required to adopt new
processes for achieving the same tasks they already know how to
accomplish. Since such changes can directly impact the services system
administrators are expected to provide reliably, tensions can run
Communication also becomes an issue, because of the variety of
perspectives held by different administrators. We found that three
main factors motivated most of our disagreements during the deployment
process: trust in the tool, a belief in the benefits provided by the
tool, and the perception of a complexity increase or decrease caused
by the tool.
Trust is certainly the most important of these factors. If
a tool remains untrusted by administrators, it will never be
substantially used in their environment. The trust-earning process
certainly varies from person to person, but we can discuss the issues
we observed. In general, as users gain more experience with the
configuration management tool, they begin to trust it more. Two
aspects of trust are important. The first is that the tool can
properly represent any configuration state that the administrators may
desire. This problem is largely technical and is solved as the
administrator gains experience and familiarity with the tool. The
second aspect of trust is harder to earn. Administrators must trust
that the tool will perform the specified changes appropriately. This
sort of trust is earned only through a long period of experience
running the tool and observing the resulting configuration changes.
The process can be accelerated, however, through the exposure of tool
decision information. If administrators can easily examine the
decision process each time they run the tool, then their trust will
grow more rapidly.
The second factor that guides the adoption process is the
perception of benefit. All administrators in our group were
already overburdened with tasks, so expecting them to spend time
learning something new was difficult. If a management tool didn't
present a clear case for rapid improvement in efficiency, learning
about it wouldn't be given high priority - and rightly so. Lack of
time to experiment with a tool clearly has a detrimental effect on
overall trust in the tool. Hence, adoption can be greatly hampered
simply because of a lack of information. This factor can be minimized,
however, by providing improvements that quickly benefit all
administrators. Easy-to-adopt solutions to common problems provide a
good incentive to try out a tool.
The third factor in the adoption of configuration management
systems is the perception of complexity. The complexity
increase may be minor; but to users unfamiliar with particular tool,
this added complexity will be unattractive because it will lead to
decreased efficiency for some tasks. Over time, as the administrators
become more familiar with the tool, the added cost of this complexity
is reduced. Once the deployment is complete, complexity is
compartmentalized, as administrators can focus on their task and
ignore others. For example, an administrator responsible for web
servers can focus on apache configuration without worrying
about upgrading ssh.
All of these factors are heavily interrelated. Throughout the
deployment process, their influence was felt through each of the
issues we encountered.
Throughout the process of tool adoption, each administrator in the
group internalizes more information about the new tool, building an
opinion about the tool's value and potential use cases. Each
administrator will trust the tool to a different extent and will have
different ideas about the potential benefits to be gained and the
complexity costs involved. The following discussion describes the
different points of contention that arose in our group. Each of the
major issues is described in the abstract, along with the factors that
turned out to be important. While we believe that these issues are
representative, the list is by no means comprehensive. People like to
argue about all sorts of issues.
Buy-in. Initially, everyone must agree that a given tool should be
used. This issue is largely influenced by the trust and comfort levels
administrators have with a tool, not to mention its technical
correctness. Learning how a tool works is essential, but this process
can require substantial amounts of time, especially in large groups.
Existing investments. A working environment typically has a sizable
investment in technical methodologies. Generally, a set of utilities
has been developed to automate particular tasks, and a large body of
institutional knowledge has evolved around specific tools and
methodologies. Moreover, the creation of these processes and tools
usually implies an emotional investment. Overcoming these investments
without alienating members of the group is difficult - but possible.
Level of control. Any tool will have a fundamental set of assumptions
or functionality that guides its behavior. Even if the tool is
reliable, it can be difficult to convince everyone that a change is
beneficial - especially if the methods that a proposed new tool uses
to implement a given task differ from those historically used. This
issue can be overcome only with a large amount of empirical evidence
that these methods are equivalent. As when programmers made the
initial switch to high-level languages, administrators are accustomed
to making complex low-level changes to systems, rather than using
high-level specifications of functionality.
Our goal is not to diminish these concerns in any way; in fact,
all of these considerations are quite reasonable. In some ways, these
concerns illustrate the core essence of system administration. That
is, the adoption of a tool that will radically affect every aspect of
system maintenance is not a decision that should be taken lightly.
Administrators, after all, shoulder the brunt of system failures,
misconfigurations, and software configuration problems.
Rather, our intent is to document these concerns. We believe we
have gained a deeper understanding of our requirements and also
provided a comprehensive vetting process. Moreover, through this
documentation, we hope to aid other groups attempting the same sort of
The highest-level problem can be most easily summarized as "buy-
in." Once that problem is resolved, the tool deployment will achieve
critical mass and no longer serves as a point of contention.
Despite the social issues we confronted, we managed to implement a
configuration management system. We attribute our success to three
Our group was predisposed to recognizing the value of configuration
management. This attitude removed an important initial hurdle from the
process. Had we simultaneously needed to convince the group of both
the need and mechanism for configuration management, the outlook would
have been far worse.
One administrator was involved in both the Bcfg2 development
activities and maintenance of the division infrastructure. Without his
work as liaison, many arguments wouldn't have carried nearly the
weight that they did; adoption could have easily stalled.
Our group is quite amicable, and not particularly sentimental. These
characteristics allowed easier discussion of contentious subjects and
the replacement of existing mechanisms and tools.
Even with these factors, considerable perseverance and evangelism
were required. The outcome of this process was in doubt throughout
much of the deployment process. At many points, administrators did not
seem to find the model compelling enough and did not trust the tool.
Fortunately, everything worked out well in the end.
While there is a great amount of social variance among groups of
system administrators, we can make several recommendations based on
The tool under consideration must have an advocate who is technically
respected by the group. His role will be to assess the various tools
and select one that seems best suited to the environment. He will also
need to convince other members of the group that the chosen tool is
the proper one.
Administrator concerns should be addressed, not ignored. These
concerns are generally based on experience and reflect potential
technical issues that could occur later. Once all concerns have been
addressed, the group will more readily accept the tool into daily
Tool advocacy will be most compelling when improvements mentioned are
useful in the short or medium term. Long-term improvements, while
desirable, do not often provide short-term motivation. Hence, long-
term benefits secure a position on the "when we have time" list for
In spite of the difficulties described above, this project has
succeeded beyond our expectations. We have several new capabilities we
could not have predicted even six months ago. All of these
capabilities have resulted from three major shifts in architecture.
First, we now have a centralized configuration specification and
statistics that allow reasoning about the desired (and actual)
configuration states of our entire environment. Second, we now have an
abstraction barrier between our specifications of machine function and
the implementation of that function. This barrier simplifies both
parts of the configuration specification and allows easier
interactions. Third, several operations have been completely
implemented by the configuration management system, thereby reducing
the cost in time, and improving the economies of many processes. Each
of these improvements contribute to a fundamental alteration of the
management model for our environment.
Many configuration management tools have a centralized
specification that describes the desired state of the network. Where
Bcfg2 departs from this model is the addition of detailed statistics
about client state. The addition of these statistics to the central
specification causes what would be a static set of rules to become a
living document, automatically updated by Bcfg2. The desired
configuration and all deviations from it are available in a central
The existence of a configuration oracle for an entire network
alters the administration mind-set in that global notions of state can
now be constructed. Many data mining techniques can now be utilized.
Reports describing network configuration state, reporting on the
frequency and success of client configuration processes can give a
thorough picture of unexpected client states before users are
affected. Similarly, reports automatically generated from the
configuration specification can provide insight into current software
revisions, client functionality, and potentially even system
interdependence. Reports such as these can prove useful for auditing
purposes, the training of new employees, and high-level descriptions
of services provided.
The configuration specification used by Bcfg2 splits information
into three layers. The first, called the metadata layer, describes
function information in terms of clients and classes. For example, the
metadata may describe a class of clients that include web server
functionality. The second layer, called the repository, ascribes
meaning to those descriptions. In the same example, the repository
would contain information describing what "being a web server"
means. The third layer, implementing client reconfiguration
operations, receives configurations from the higher two layers and
reports on execution results. While this architecture is Bcfg2
specific, many other complex configuration management tools are
structured in a similar way .
This layered specification provides an abstraction barrier
isolating function assignment from function description. For example,
after "being a web server" is defined, one can easily and reliably
add new web server instances. Once this operation is possible,
programs that generate these changes become possible. The addition of
logic into this function determination process introduces dramatic
flexibility into the network. It also allows common function shifting
operations to be automated.
Repository semantics benefit from this abstraction barrier as
well. Several simple context-specific formats can be used to describe
implementation behavior. Similarly, scripts can be written to
autogenerate these files, if desired. Important functionality, ranging
from automated patch integration to service reconfiguration, can be
The client-side tool receives a literal set of configuration
directives from the Bcfg2 server. It compares the current operational
state with the desired state and performs a set of state transitions,
focusing on safely transitioning into the goal state. The client tool
implements a small number of operations that have been well tested.
Upon completion, the Bcfg2 client returns a set of statistics about
the configuration state of the client and modifications performed. In
conjunction, these two features allow administrators to focus on
configuration goals, while allowing the client tool to determine a
reasonable set of operations to implement these goals. In this way,
the client tool isolates the upper-level users from some low-level
Tools are intended to make tasks easier. Using Bcfg2, we found
three major tasks that were vastly simplified.
System rebuilds have become trivial. Statistics are used to verify
that the configuration specification matches the running state of the
machine. After this match has been verified, the machine can be
rebuilt at the appropriate time. The previous process consisted of a
lot of manual verification; a second system would typically be used to
verify functionality and swapped in after everything worked.
The new machine build process has also been greatly accelerated
and simplified. Several stock profiles are available; the user is
presented with a menu at the beginning of the build process. No other
setup is required. Hence, non-root users are now able to build
machines quite easily.
The class-based system allows new profiles to be easily created by
composing existing function groups. Hence, users can create new
profiles whenever needed, without shoehorning functions into the same
profile. In this fashion, the configuration specification becomes more
concise and representative of the actual running configuration.
Each of these tasks has become easier with the addition of a
configuration management system. While these tasks could previously be
performed, more expertise and privileges were frequently required. The
net impact of these changes is to empower users to be able to perform
tasks that were not previously possible.
Overall Efficiency Gains
All of these factors contributed to an impressive increase in
efficiency. We estimate that before conversion three FTEs of time were
spent on the maintenance of our workstation and server environment.
These administrators performed a variety of tasks, ranging from
security updates to new software installation, and user-requested
reconfigurations. After conversion, between one-third and one-half of
an FTE is consumed by these activities.
The time freed by these improvements is now available for a
variety of activities. Large-scale infrastructure improvement projects
are under way. More time for interactions with users has resulted in
more satisfying services for users and more accurate assessments of
Basic administration tasks remain split across several
administrators. The use of configuration management has also reduced
the cost of task distribution. The existence of a central location for
configuration specification imposes a set of expectations that allow
administrators to find one another's work and synchronize when needed.
Most simply, all administrators are kept on the same page.
Conclusions and Future Work
Our main goal in this paper is to document the process and results
of deploying a configuration management tool. While the process is
difficult, the outcomes are worthwhile. Indeed, the outcomes we
experienced have more than justified the effort involved. While some
of the difficulties faced were certainly peculiar to our group, we
feel that the ones documented here are indicative of the fundamental
issues in a change of this magnitude.
While our discussion may suggest that this task is too difficult
for many groups to consider, we strongly believe that configuration
management is an important technology to deploy in nearly any
environment. We hope that our discussion of difficulties will not
dissuade other groups but, rather, will be used to navigate an
admittedly difficult process.
Many administrative tasks have been vastly simplified, and much
useful data can be mined from the configuration specification and
statistics. The availability of this data has enabled a higher level
of reporting and comprehension of our environment than was previously
While many improvements have already been realized, further
substantial efficiency gains can be achieved. Certainly, Bcfg2 could
be improved. Several technical improvements relating to information
representation require attention. Also, an interface to force client
reconfigurations would be useful. The user interface will also
continue to improve with more experience.
As a group, we expect administrative model changes to continue,
although with a less disruptive effect. Many processes remain that
could be automated. Also, a service that allows reconfiguration
delegation would be useful, allowing users to update aspects of
configuration as appropriate. Moreover, we hope that administration
streamlining will continue.
This work was supported by the Mathematical, Information, and
Computational Sciences Division subprogram of the Office of Advanced
Scientific Computing Research, Office of Science, U. S. Department of
Energy, under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38.
Narayan Desai has worked for 5 years as a systems administrator
and developer in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division of
Argonne National Laboratory. His primary focus is system software
issues, particularly pertaining to system management and parallel
systems. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rick Bradshaw holds a BS in Computer Science from Edinboro
University. He has been a member of the MCS Systems team since 2001,
where he aids in maintaining HPC resources, experimental computing
resources, and general UNIX infrastructure. He can be reached at
Scott Matott is a network engineer for UBS AG. Previously, he
worked as a network engineer at Argonne National Laboratory and the
University of Chicago. He can be reached at email@example.com.
Cory Lueninghoener is a smug and condescending HPC Systems
Administrator at Argonne National Laboratory working on the Teragrid
cluster. Prior to this current life, he also spent lives as both an
undergraduate and graduate student at the University of Nebraska-
Lincoln working with the Research Computing Facility. He can be
reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ti Leggett is a systems administrator for the Futures Laboratory
of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National
Laboratory. He also has a joint appointment with the Computation
Institute at the University of Chicago and can be reached at
Gene Rackow has been the curmudgeon of the systems group of the
Mathematics and Computer Science Division since before there was a
systems group. He has been instrumental in the operation of many
generations of HPC platforms used by the division over the last 25
years. More recently, his attentions have officially turned to
security issues, where he will be taking more of a labwide role. He
can be reached at email@example.com.
Susan Coghlan has been managing HPC systems and HPC system
administrators for several years in the MCS Division of Argonne
National Laboratory. Prior to that, she helped to administrate ASCI
Blue Mountain, a 6144 processor supercomputer at Los Alamos National
Laboratory. When not fiddling with some of the world's largest
computers, she does so with other Irish traditional musicians.
Rémy Evard is the CIO of Argonne National Laboratory. Prior
to this he performed several roles in the Mathematics and Computer
Science Division related to managing systems and administrators. His
research interests include configuration management and high-
performance computing. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
John-Paul Navarro has been a high-performance system administrator
in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National
Laboratory since 1997. In that time, he has operated a variety of HPC
resources, including IBM SPs and several clusters. His current
research interests include distributed high-performance computing,
storage systems, resource management and scheduling, and relational
databases. He can be reached at email@example.com.
Craig Stacey has worked as a Systems Administrator and Information
Technology Manager for 8 years in the Mathematics and Computer Science
Division at Argonne National Laboratory. His research interests focus
primarily on the intersection of robots, monkeys and pants. His email
address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tisha Stacey felt most comfortable describing herself with this
I'm Tisha Stacey.
I work as a sysadmin.
Please don't e-mail me.
Sandra Bittner joined the Systems Group at Argonne National
Laboratory in 1997. She was lead on the installation of a
128-processor SGI Onyx 2 with 12 graphics pipes and a core member of
the NSF funded TeraGrid project, which is building the world's
largest, fastest distributed infrastructure for open science research.
She is an active member of ACM, IEEE, NSPE, and Usenix/Sage. She holds
a bachelor's degree in computer engineering from the University of
Illinois at Chicago.
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