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Related Work

There has been a lot of work on writing JVMs in general [25], on JVMs for 64-bit RISC [15], and JVMs for x86 in particular [22]. Many of these JVMs are not well documented in the research literature because of competitive concerns. Two notable exceptions are IBM's Jalapeño JVM[7] and Intel's Open Research Platform(ORP)[6]. IBM's JVM is similar to ours in that it started out life as a RISC JVM on PowerPC, and has recently been ported to x86 [24]. Intel's JVM is of course native to the x86, but may experience similar porting pains when moving the IA64[2]. [17] describes the architecture of the HotSpot Virtual Machine. [5] describes the FastVM for Alpha that we ported to x86. In addition to just-in-time compilers several static compilers exist that generate native code from Java source code and use standard compiler backends for optimization [16,4,20] Unlike much of the published literature on x86 JVMs, our work focuses on the gritty, low-level design considerations required to make a JVM use a CISC instruction set effectively.