Kiran-Kumar Muniswamy-Reddy and David A. Holland
Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Versioning file systems provide the ability to recover from a variety of failures, including file corruption, virus and worm infestations, and user mistakes. However, using versions to recover from data-corrupting events requires a human to determine precisely which files and versions to restore. We can create more meaningful versions and enhance the value of those versions by capturing the causal connections among files, facilitating selection and recovery of precisely the right versions after data corrupting events.
We determine when to create new versions of files automatically using the causal relationships among files. The literature on versioning file systems usually examines two extremes of possible version-creation algorithms: open-to-close versioning and versioning on every write. We evaluate causal versions of these two algorithms and introduce two additional causality-based algorithms: Cycle-Avoidance and Graph-Finesse.
We show that capturing and maintaining causal relationships imposes less than 7% overhead on a versioning system, providing benefit at low cost. We then show that Cycle-Avoidance provides more meaningful versions of files created during concurrent program execution, with overhead comparable to open/close versioning. Graph-Finesse provides even greater control, frequently at comparable overhead, but sometimes at unacceptable overhead. Versioning on every write is an interesting extreme case, but is far too costly to be useful in practice.
Versioning file systems automatically create copies (i.e., versions) of files as they are modified, providing numerous benefits to users and administrators. Users find versions convenient when they inadvertently remove or corrupt a valuable file. Administrators find that versioning systems greatly reduce the rate of requests to restore files from backup. In addition, versioning file systems provide the means to clean up after a data-corrupting intrusion. Unfortunately, versioning alone does not help in identifying the most recent ``good'' version of a file or how data corruption may have spread from one file to another.
Snapshotting, often implemented using checkpoints, is another approach for versioning that is common for backup systems. Such a system periodically takes a whole or incremental image of the file system and then uses copy-on-write for data modified after the snapshot. Snapshots, similar to versioning file systems, cannot help identify the most recent ``good'' version of a file. Another drawback of snapshot-based systems is the granularity of recovery: it is not possible to undo changes made between snapshots.
Several new file system designs capture causality relationships among files for a variety of different purposes. For example, Taser  captures causality information to address the challenge of identifying files tainted by an intrusion or corrupted by administrative errors. BackTracker  captures causality information to analyze intrusions. Provenance-aware storage systems (PASS) capture the provenance or digital history of files to let users answer questions such as, ``How do these two files differ?'' ``What files are derived from this one?'' ``From what files is this file derived?'' ``How are these two files related?'' . Other systems  preserve causal relationships to enhance personal search capabilities.
Combining versioning and the capture of causal relationships introduces functionality not available in existing systems. For example, suppose a system has been compromised by a data-corrupting worm. Upon identifying a tainted file, the causal relationships provide a mechanism to trace backwards to find the last version prior to the corruption and then trace forward to identify all the files tainted by that corruption. These two traces precisely identify the appropriate files and versions that need to be restored to recover from the intrusion. Without versioning, an administrator's only recourse is to restore the system to a clean snapshot, potentially losing valuable user data. Without causal relationships, the administrator cannot know how the corruption has spread.
Similarly, imagine a scenario where a physics simulator produces results today that differ from those produced yesterday. Here, causal data can reveal the cause of the difference, while versioning data can recover to the earlier (and presumably correct) version.
Conventional versioning file systems [3,10,15,18,24] typically use one of two techniques to determine when to create new file versions: ``open-close'' and ``version-on-every-write''. In the ``open-close'' approach, versions are defined relative to open and close events. Typically a new version is created upon the first block update after an open and all writes that occur before the final close operation appear in that new version. This has the potential to lose valuable information. For example, consider the split-logfile vulnerability in Apache 1.3 . The vulnerability, present in a helper program called split-logfile, allows any file in the system with a .log file extension to be written. Assume that a database server running on the same machine as the Apache split-logfile helper uses a file called db.log to store its recovery information. This database server opens the file when it is started and keeps it open. The first time the database server writes to the log file, an ``open-close'' system will create a new version of it. That version will remain the current version until the database is shut down. Now, suppose an attacker exploits Apache and writes new data in db.log. At this point, the log consists of some old ``good'' log entries and some new ''bad'' log entries. Even if an administrator finds that db.log has been corrupted, the only version available for recovery is the one that existed before the database server wrote anything. If the administrator restores that version, all database operations since the server started will be lost. One might turn to the ``version-on-every-write'' algorithm, which creates a new version each time data is written to the file; this approach ensures that no data is lost, but it can be expensive in both time and space.
Fortunately, versioning algorithms informed by causality relationships produce versions that facilitate recovery to the pre-tampering state without the overhead of versioning on every write. In the Apache example above, causality-based techniques force a new version of the log file to be started before the attacker's writes are applied. We introduce two such causality techniques: Cycle-Avoidance and Graph-Finesse. Cycle-Avoidance conservatively declares new versions using knowledge local to the objects being acted upon (i.e, process, files, pipes, etc). Graph-Finesse is less conservative, using global knowledge to maintain an in-memory graph of dependencies between objects, declaring a new version whenever adding a dependency edge introduces a cycle. We discuss these algorithms in more detail in Section 4.
As we show in Section 6, any kind of versioning, when coupled with maintenance of causal relationships, provides significant value. In the presence of long-running and/or concurrent execution, Cycle-Avoidance creates the versions necessary to recover from corruption without introducing significant overhead above that of open/close. Graph-Finesse creates slightly fewer versions than Cycle-Avoidance, but it pays significant overhead in workloads that read and write a large number of files. Versioning on every write exhibits sufficiently high overhead that it is impractical.
The contributions of the paper are as follows:
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce the system upon which we build our causality-based versioning system and describe its essential architectural details. In Section 3, we discuss several novel use cases that causality-based versioning enables. In Section 4, we present details of the new versioning algorithms. In Section 5, we discuss the versioning file system implementation. In Section 6, we present evaluation results. In Section 7, we discuss related work. Finally, we conclude in Section 8.
We extended PASS  (Provenance-aware storage system), the causality-collection system we built, to capture versioning information. We chose PASS as it captured precisely the data that we needed and has a modular architecture that made it easy to add versioning. In this section, we provide a high level overview of the PASS architecture to provide the necessary background to understand our version creation algorithms and implementation.
Figure 1 shows the PASS architecture. Its key components are:
The observer and analyzer are central to causality-based versioning and are discussed further in Section 4.
PASS maintains provenance, and therefore causal relationships, for both persistent and transient objects. A relationship between two files (persistent objects) is therefore expressed indirectly as two relationships, each between a file and a process. For example, when a process issues a read system call, PASS creates a record stating that the process causally depends upon the file being read. When that process then issues a write system call, PASS creates a record stating that the written file depends upon the process that wrote it. The causal relationships described by these records are the heart of the data we use, both to instantiate file versions and also to choose files to restore after a corruption.
Recently, one of the authors upgraded the software on his system. The upgraded packages included coreutils, the package that contains ls. This author completed the upgrade and continued working for the rest of the evening. However, when he came back the next morning, ls emitted the message:
/bin/ls: unrecognized prefix: do /bin/ls: unparsable value for LS_COLORS environment variableThe author then searched the web to learn that the behavior might be the result of an intrusion. He promptly installed chkrootkit and rkhunter, two popular programs to verify that a system has been hacked. However, both the programs failed to locate any known rootkits. At this point, it was unclear if the aberrant behavior of ls was due to the update to coreutils the evening before or an intrusion.
Had he been running PASS, the author could have followed the chain of provenance dependencies of the file /etc/DIR_COLORS. (LS_COLORS is derived from DIR_COLORS). If the provenance chain of DIR_COLORS indicated that it was modified by the package manager or a legitimate system utility, then the system had not been hacked; otherwise, the system had been hacked. In the event the system had been hacked, there would be only one option: wipe the system and re-install. This is obviously undesirable, especially since the author had recently completed a re-install in order to upgrade. Faced with this situation, the author longed for a versioning file system coupled with PASS that would permit him to selectively roll back the affected files to the version just before they were corrupted. Had that been an option, he could have continued using his system without a full re-install.
Systems that collect provenance frequently do so to facilitate the reproduction of scientific results . Consider the common scenario where a scientist collects data from some device (e.g., a telescope), transforms it through many intermediate stages and produces a final output file. Suppose he finds, a few months after publishing the data, that one of the programs in the intermediate stages had a bug. The scientist has no option but to begin anew with the raw data and then re-run all the experiments that he thinks may have been affected by the bug.
If, however, he has complete provenance of his data, he can identify precisely which data sets were affected by the corrupt program. Hence, he need only re-run those experiments from the point at which the corruption occurred. Further, if the raw data is unavailable (frequently, raw data is archived and removed from data processing systems once it has undergone its initial pre-processing), he can use a versioning system to recover the missing raw data to re-run the experiments. This method obviates the need to retrieve the raw data from archives or a central repository.
Software configuration management is extremely hard . New software installation can (and regularly does) break existing software, because packages interact with each other through various agents: libraries, registries, configuration files, and even environment variables.
Provenance systems can help alleviate some of the problems of configuration management by helping users recover from a corrupt configuration. One of our authors recently installed a new music player on his system. The music player, in turn, depended on a number of libraries that needed to be updated or downloaded. After the install, the music player worked well, but much to the annoyance of the author, his movie player ceased to work. The author guessed that is was probably because of the updates to the libraries. The author tried to use the package manager to revert the system to the state that existed prior to the music player install. Using the system package manager to remove the music player did not help, because as far as the package manager was concerned, the library updates were independent of the music player install. The author could not manually undo the library updates as he did not know the list of libraries that were installed. A record of the causal relationships between the libraries, the music player, and the movie player would have helped the author identify which of the libraries were common to the music player and the movie player and hence would have helped to point out (or narrow down) the offending library. Such causal data coupled with a versioning file system provides exactly the information needed to permit the user to revert all the modified files to a state prior to that of the music player install. Since the versioning system even restores the package manager database to its prior state, it preserves the consistency of the system.
The problems outlined in this use case arise mainly because package management dependencies are generated manually and are brittle in nature. Alternatively, one could use causal data recorded by PASS to gather the true dependencies of a package that, in turn, can help perform better roll backs after installation.
Traditional databases are designed to recover from software and hardware crashes. However, those mechanisms are not sufficient to recover from a human error or a compromise due to the time gap between the event occurrence and the detection. In such cases, recovery involves a manual sanitizing of the database. Causality-based versioning can help reduce the amount of effort and the downtime of the service as we show in the following example. For simplicity, we assume that the database is not running transactionally.
A faulty client can corrupt a database by either adding incorrect entries, removing valid entries, or updating existing entries incorrectly. Once the faulty client is detected, one can use the causal data collected by PASS with the versioning data to recover the database. Recovery is simple in the case where the last database update is by the faulty client. In this case, recovery simply entails reverting the database to a version before the client updated it. In the case where legitimate actions are interleaved with the actions of the faulty client, automatic recovery is hard as both legitimate and faulty updates are coalesced in main memory and then written to disk. In this scenario, one can use causal information to recover the database to a version before the faulty client's modifications and a version after the faulty client's modifications and then compute a difference of the data dump between the two versions. The difference in the data dump will contain both legitimate and illegitimate data that needs to be sanitized, but the number of rows requiring manual checking is much smaller than the entire database.
As described in Section 2, in the PASS architecture the observer generates causal relationship data and the analyzer prunes these relationships, removing duplicates and cycles. Programs generally perform I/O in relatively small blocks (e.g., 4 KB), issuing multiple reads and writes when manipulating large files. Each read or write call causes the observer to emit a new record, most of which are identical. The analyzer removes these duplicates. Meanwhile, cycles can occur when multiple processes are concurrently reading and writing the same files . Cycles in causality are nonsensical and must be avoided. In the PASS system, the analyzer prevents cycles by forcing new versions of objects to be created. It does this by choosing when to freeze them; that is, when to declare the current version ``finished'' and begin a new version. Transient objects (processes and pipes) can also be frozen to break cycles. To experiment with causality-based versioning, we installed the versioning algorithms in the analyzer. In this section, we describe the versioning algorithms we used, referencing Table 1 as an example sequence of events.
In the open-close (OC) algorithm, the last close of a file (that is, when no more processes have the file open) triggers a freeze operation. The next open and write triggers the start of a new version. This algorithm does not preserve causality; some sequences of events (including the example in Table 1) produce cycles. Figure 2 illustrates how this happens.
The version-on-every-write (ALL) algorithm creates a new version on every write. This avoids any violations of causality but potentially creates a large number of versions. In this sense, it is the most conservative of the algorithms we consider. The code for this algorithm is quite simple; because each write results in a new version of a file and each read results in a new version of a process, each record refers to a distinct version of something. Thus, there is no need to check for either duplicates or cycles.
The Cycle-Avoidance (CA) algorithm, as its name suggests, preserves causality by avoiding cycles. For each object, the analyzer maintains a unique object ID (assigned at object creation), a version number (incremented on each freeze), and an ancestor table. The ancestor table records the object ID and version number of all the immediate ancestors of the object. When CA receives a record of the form , it stores in the ancestor table of . CA creates a new version of an object whenever it adds a new ancestor, where different versions are considered distinct, to the object's ancestor table. Doing so guarantees that no cycles will be created. CA differs from version-on-every-write, because not all writes add new ancestors.
When the analyzer receives a record of the form , it examines the ancestor table of for , that is, some version of object , and uses the following rules to perform both duplicate detection and cycle handling.
Figure 3 illustrates the behaviour of the Cycle-Avoidance algorithm for the example sequence in Table 1.
Self-cycles arise when a process is both reading and writing the same file. Some programs, such as the GNU linker, generate self-cycles as they repeatedly read from and write to their output files. The Cycle-Avoidance algorithm as described can create a large number of unnecessary versions in this situation. To avoid this, we track each object's last ancestor. When the analyzer receives a record of the form , it makes the following check:
The above rule tells us that the last version change of occurred because of the current version of . In that case, the data being fed to originated from itself, and we have a self-cycle. Records representing self-cycles do not add information and can be dropped immediately.
As described above, Cycle-Avoidance decides when to create new versions using local knowledge about the object to which a dependency refers. In contrast, Graph-Finesse (GF) uses global knowledge to make its decisions. It maintains a global directed graph of the causal dependency relationships between objects. The GF algorithm checks each new record against the graph and forces the creation of a new version of a single file if and only if adding the record would otherwise create a cycle. The name arises from the fact that it picks out a comparatively small number of new versions to create while still preserving causality.
Given a record , GF uses the following rules:
By design, GF also subsumes open-close versioning and includes the freeze-on-last-close behavior as described in Section 4.1.
To keep the graph from growing without bound, it is important to prune it. Any node in the graph (representing some version of some object) may be pruned if that node is frozen, that is, any future write to the object will create a new version or be to some already existing newer version, and all the ancestors of the node are frozen. (If an ancestor is unfrozen, writing to it may cause a cycle.)
It is therefore possible to bound the size (or diameter or other measure) of the graph at the cost of creating extra versions, by freezing unfrozen objects that would otherwise be pruned. We have considered this but not implemented it, because there seems to be little need for it in practice.
Graph-Finesse can consume more CPU for some workloads as it has to traverse the graph on every record addition. Our evaluation confirms this. The memory consumption of Graph-Finesse, however, is comparable to the other algorithms. Graph-Finesse can also use the self-cycle logic described in Section 4.2.1. Figure 4 illustrates the behaviour of the Graph-Finesse algorithm for the example workload.
We now discuss how pruning entries in CA and GF does not affect the use cases discussed in section 3. The OC, CA, and GF algorithms record the same versioning data for the first three use cases as they involve an application making a one time modification to all the data files involved. Such changes generate the same causal information and data versions for the three algorithms. The ALL algorithm generates the same causal information and versioning data as the other algorithms with the difference being that the data is spread over more versions. For the remaining two use cases, the causal algorithms record different causal information and versioning data. We explain how they differ in the database recovery ( 3.4) use case.
The database server (server) opens the database at startup, writes to it in response to client requests, and closes the file at shutdown. In OC, the first time the server writes to the database, it creates a new version. All subsequent database modifications are part of this new version and old data is not copied before applying these modifications, because the file is still open. Thus, restoring the old version loses any legitimate modifications between the first write and the faulty writes. Clearly, OC versioning is not sufficient for the database recovery use case. ALL has sufficient information as it recorded all causal information and versioned on every database modification. However, versioning the database this frequently is potentially very inefficient.
In CA, reception of a client request produces a new version of the server process. This, in turn, triggers a new version of the database, when the server modifies the database. Multiple modifications resulting from a single client request do not create multiple versions, because the server's version does not change. However, when a new (faulty) request arrives, the server's version increments as does the database's version. Interleaved requests from multiple clients will generate many versions. Thus, in a single client case, CA behaves like OC and when clients interleave, it behaves like ALL. Hence, there is sufficient information to undo a faulty client's updates. The GF algorithm behaves in a manner similar to CA.
In this section, we describe our versioning design choices, our implementation, and the limitations of our system. Our versioning design was influenced by the comprehensive versioning file system (CVFS) , which explored metadata efficiency in versioning file systems. CVFS showed that logging all the modifications of a file to a journal is more efficient than creating a new inode for each version. Hence, we use a redo log for storing versioning data for files. Although CVFS uses multiversion B-trees to handle versions of directories, we store directory metadata in an undo log, as this is much simpler to implement. We implement our versioning system by modifying Lasagna, the PASS storage engine. Lasagna is a stackable file system, which used eCryptfs  as its starting code base.
For each file foo, we maintain a version file v;12345, where 12345 is the inode number of foo. The version file is a log where we record old data before updating the primary file. Inode numbers are never reused, because we never delete files. For locality, we keep the version files and the files they describe in the same directory. Users cannot access the version file directly as we filter out the version file names in readdir and lookup.
The version file consists of the following three types of log records. The version record marks the start of data records for a version. It contains the version number and the metadata attributes of the version such as the file size, uid, gid, etc. The page record holds old data being overwritten. This contains the data and the page number in the file from which the data came. Finally, the beginptr record is the last record of a version; it records the location of the corresponding version record to allow scanning backwards.
Each version begins with a version record, ends with a beginptr, and has some number of intervening page records. We write a beginptr record to the version file when a freeze request is issued on the file. We write a version record on the first write call on the file after a freeze.
When a program issues a write call on a file, we read the pages that the write call overwrites and write a page record for each. When a file is truncated, we log all discarded pages. We record each page only once per version. For example, if the file system receives two 4K writes at offset 0, we log data only for the first (assuming the version does not change between the writes). On an unlink, we rename the target file to v;12345;deleted where 12345 is the inode number. A native file system could remove the file blocks from the primary file and append them to the version file. Lasagna, however, is a stackable file system and does not control the file layout of the underlying file system. Instead, we rename the file on the last unlink. This is more efficient than copying blocks from the primary file to the version file, especially for large files.
Because version logs are never deleted and files are renamed on deletion, directories are never truly empty, so our versioning file system cannot perform rmdir operations. Instead, when a directory is removed, we check to see if all the files in the directory are either v;inode or v;inode;deleted files, i.e., all files are either version files or deleted files. If so, the directory is ``virtually'' empty, and we can move the directory out of the way using a ;deleted suffix.
We provide an ioctl that is used to access old versions of a file. The ioctl takes as input, a name, a version, and a file descriptor and recovers the old version into the file descriptor. Internally, we perform recovery by scanning backward in the version file until we find the desired version record. Once this has been found, we scan forward in the version file writing the data pages of the file version to the user supplied file descriptor. We also update the attributes of the file descriptor based on the values recorded in the version record. Hence, previous version access is a redo operation. Directory operations, on the other hand, are undone depending on the contents of the version log records.
The causal data that we capture is an approximation and can lead to false positives or negatives while performing analysis for recovery. For example, /etc/shadow will be in the history of every process and file, as login reads it while authenticating users. Hence even legitimate users that log in after an attack can appear to be causally related to the attack. The general approach to deal with this has been to white-list some of these files, i.e., ignore the causal information on some files while performing analysis. Further, contextual policies to ignore some of the causal information can help improve the results of the analysis. For example, to construct the list of files needed to migrate an application, we need to use all the causal information as we do not want the application to fail on restart. However, while analyzing causal data during intrusion recovery, we need consider only those files that have been written by illegal processes.
As with all provenance systems, PASS cannot capture causal dependencies external to the computer. For example, when a user prints a file and then makes some notes based on what she read, PASS cannot capture the dependency between the notes to the source file. PASS does, however, allow users and applications to annotate user-knowledge or application specific provenance to the provenance collected by PASS (with the obvious limitation that the user or application needs to take the correct action).
Attackers can perform a denial of service attack by repeatedly overwriting files, filling the disk with versioning information. While this is not different from an attacker filling the disk with regular files, we can do better than regular file systems by using the causal information to detect anomalous behaviour and prevent it [12,23].
Because our implementation is a stackable file system, it is vulnerable to tampering by means of unmounting it and inspecting or altering the underlying state. This could be prevented by using cryptography or by having a non-stackable implementation and using a securelevel-type scheme to protect raw disk devices.
Finally, we are vulnerable to an intruder changing the kernel. Once the intruder has access to the kernel, she can change the causal information and the versioning information, thus making accurate recovery impossible. Secure Disk Systems , where an intruder cannot modify the causal or versioning data once it has been written to disk, helps solve the problem partially, by allowing users to recover data up to the point the system was subverted. This is better than a clean system install. Causal versioning is still useful for recovery in the cases where attackers do not care to cover up their tracks, such as when they set up a bot on a machine and abandon the system after a few days.
The goal of our evaluation is twofold. First, to quantify the overheads introduced by the different versioning systems. Second, to evaluate the efficacy and performance of the different algorithms during recovery of files. We address these goals as follows: First, we discuss the evaluation platform and the configurations we used for evaluation. In Section 6.1, we discuss the performance overheads for four benchmarks representative of a broad range of workloads. In Section 6.2, we discuss how the versioning algorithms perform during recovery.
We ran all the benchmarks on a 3GHz Pentium 4 machine with 512MB of RAM. The machine had a 80GB 7200 RPM Western Digital Caviar WD800JB hard drive that was used to store all file system data and metadata, including causality. The machine was running Fedora Core 5 with a PASS kernel based on Linux 188.8.131.52 and Lasagna was stacked on Ext2. We recorded elapsed, system, and user times, and the amount of disk space utilized for all tests. We also recorded the wait times for all tests; wait time is mostly I/O time, but other factors such as scheduling time can also affect it. We compute wait time as the difference between the elapsed time and system+user times. We do not discuss the user time as it is not affected by the modifications in the kernel. We also ran the same benchmarks on Ext2 using those results as a baseline. In order to separate the overhead due to versioning from the overhead due to causality, we also ran all experiments using versioning without enabling causality collection. We used the open-close algorithm for the latter experiments. We ran each experiment at least 5 times. In all cases, the standard deviations were less than .
We evaluate the system under the following configurations:
VER: open-close versioning with no causal data
OC: open-close versioning with causal data
CA: Cycle-Avoidance versioning with causal data
GF: Graph-Finesse versioning with causal data
ALL: Version-on-every write with causal data
We ran the following four workloads to evaluate the versioning algorithms. 1. Linux compile, in which we unpack and build Linux kernel version 184.108.40.206. This benchmark represents a CPU-intensive workload. 2. Postmark, that simulates the operation of an email server. This represents an I/O-intensive workload. We ran 1,500 transactions with file sizes ranging from 4 KB to 1 MB, with 10 subdirectories and 1500 files. 3. Mercurial activity benchmark, where we start with a vanilla Linux 220.127.116.11 kernel and apply, as patches, each of the changes that we committed to our own Mercurial-managed source tree. This benchmark evaluates the overhead a user experiences in a normal development scenario, where the user works on a small subset of the files over a period of time; 4. A biological blast  workload that is representative of a scientific workload. The workload finds protein sequences that are closely related in two different species. The workload formats two input data files with a tool called formatdb, processes the two files with blast, and then massages the output data with a series of perl scripts.
Figure 5 shows the elapsed time results for Linux compile and Table 2 shows the space overhead. Plain versioning (VER) adds 11.9% to the elapsed time and 2.9% to the space. The increase in elapsed time is mostly due to the additional writes performed to store versions, but a small portion is due to the fact that we use a stackable file system. For the OC, CA, and GF algorithms, the overheads increase moderately over VER to 17.1%, 18.3% and 21.3% respectively. This increase is due to the extra writes issued to record causal data. For this benchmark, CA and GF, the causality based algorithms, perform comparably to OC in terms of elapsed time and version space. ALL, as we expect, has the worst elapsed time performance with 57.4% overhead. The ALL overhead is a result of the enormous number of versions being created and the quantity of data necessary to do so. The system time also increases significantly for ALL due to the distributor having to cache large amounts of causal data.
Figure 6 shows the elapsed time results for Postmark and Table 3 shows the space overheads. The overheads follow a pattern similar to the overheads for the Linux compile benchmark. VER has the lowest overhead at 8.2%. VER's overhead is due to the extra writes to record version data and the double buffering in Lasagna (stackable file systems cache both their data pages and lower file system data pages). The overheads increase marginally for OC, CA, and GF to 9%, 9%, and 9.1% respectively. The increase is marginal as causal information recorded is minimal and the version data also increases minimally from VER to OC, CA, and GF. Once again, ALL, with a 26.6% overhead exhibits the greatest overhead as expected.
Figure 7 shows the elapsed time results for the Mercurial activity benchmark and Table 4 shows the space overhead. The performance overheads follow the pattern we have seen so far. However, surprisingly, GF performs worse than even ALL for this benchmark. VER, CA, GF, and ALL have overheads of 25.9%, 28.8%, 27.9%, 89.6%, and 61.3% respectively. The performance overheads of GF is a result of a very large patch combined with the way the program patch functions. patch works by first reading the patch file and the file to patch, then merges the two files into a temporary file, and finally renames the temporary file to the file specified in the patch. At one point during development, we moved from a Linux 18.104.22.168 kernel to a Linux 22.214.171.124 kernel. This resulted in a large patch touching all the source files in the repository. This forced a single instance of patch to read and write all of the 20,000 files in the Linux source tree. Every time patch writes to a new file, GF verifies that the file does not form a causality-violating cycle with the files that patch previously read. This results in the heavy system time overheads. This problem could be alleviated by having patch spawn multiple processes each of which merges a unique subset of the files specified in the patch file.
Another anomaly is that CA generates less causal data than OC. The explanation is that this workload generates a rename for every file to be patched. OC issues a freeze on the directory every time a directory is modified. CA, however, uses the causal history to determine that the same process is modifying the directory and eliminates duplicate entries. This results in CA consuming the least amount of both causal and version data.
Figure 8 shows the elapsed time results for the blast workload and Table 5 shows the space overhead. The overheads for this workload follow the pattern seen in the previous workloads. The time overhead is 1.4% for the VER, OC, CA, and GF configurations. The causal data overhead is less than 3.1% and the version data overhead is less than 1% for VER, OC, CA, and GF configurations. The workload is CPU intensive and processes a small number of large files, resulting in the minimal overheads for VER, OC, CA, and GF. For ALL, the elapsed time overhead is 8.8% and the space overhead is 65.4% on causal data and 257.4% on version data. The version data overheads of ALL is due to the behaviour of formatdb and blast. They write data in chunks smaller than a page, which versions the same page multiple times.
The goal of this subsection is to answer the following questions: First, in scenarios where open-close is sufficient (such as the first three use cases in Section 3), do the (unnecessary) causality-based algorithms impose additional recovery overhead? Second, in scenarios where causality does matter (the last two use cases in Section 3), how do the algorithms compare in recovery time and data loss?
To answer the first question, we wrote a program that simulates the behaviour of a worm. Worms typically overwrite one or more files/executables (for example, common executables like ls) and install some new files/programs (irchat servers being a popular choice). Our worm-simulator functions in a similar manner. The program traverses a copy of the Linux-126.96.36.199 source tree, overwrites some files and creates new ``bad'' files. All in all, we taint 25,600 files, writing a total of 500MB of data. Table 6 shows the time taken for recovering from this attack by each of the versioning algorithms. Recovery is performed in two phases. In the first phase, once a malicious process has been identified, we traverse up that process's causal data graph to determine the root cause of the break-in. Backtracker  and Taser  perform a similar analysis to determine the cause. In the second phase, once we know the root cause of the attack, we propagate down the root process descendant tree to identify potential victims and recover them to a version just before the malicious process tampered with it. The recovery times that we report here are the times of the second phase. The results show that the recovery times are proportional to the amount of causal and versioning data stored. CA has the best recovery time and ALL has the worst recovery time. This is despite the fact ALL recovers the same amount of data as other algorithms and reads roughly the same amount of data as OC and GF to perform the recovery. ALL stores more versioning information than the other algorithms. Hence the required recovery data is spread over a much larger area on the disk. In turn, the recovery process has to perform more seeks to recover the same amount of data.
To answer the second question, we wrote a benchmark that simulates the Apache vulnerability scenario described in Section 1. The program first creates 50 files and then performs the following action in a loop 50 times. In each loop it writes 8KB to each file from start to end. Every iteration (4 in our implementation), the program forks a helper program that reads a byte from each of the 50 files and communicates the character to the main program via a pipe. This simulates the behaviour of a web server opening a new connection on a socket. In the causality based algorithms, once the main process reads from the pipe, it is a causally different version as it has read data from a new source, i.e., a new process. Hence any writes the main process performs after that creates a new version of the file. For this workload, OC does not copy any data in its version files; all the files were just created, so it considers all the writes to happen to version 1 of the files. CA and GF copy data to the version files on the iterations during which the the parent spawns a child and reads from the pipe. This stores 470.5MB of version data. The ALL algorithm copies data on every write and this adds up to around 2GB of data. The amount of version data is shown in Table 7.
We then recover versions at various intervals to get a sense for how expensive it is to go back further in time in each algorithm. There are 12 causality events in all, corresponding to the number of times a child is forked. We measure the time taken to recover data to a state before the 11, 7, and the 3 event. The 11 corresponds to recovery close to the latest version, the 7 corresponds to recovery two thirds of the way back, and the 3 corresponds to recovery close to one third of the way back. The results of this benchmark are shown in Table 7. With OC, there are no intermediate versions, so it cannot recover anything useful. CA and GF can both recover to a correct version and they both take the same amount of time to recover. They also read only the exact amount of data to be recovered. ALL, however, takes at least 9 times longer than CA and GF to perform recovery, because it has more data and has to search through a large amount of data to rebuild the correct version. Further, ALL has many more false positives that it has to filter before deciding on the version to recover. CA and GF have only one version to choose. Since ALL has been versioning continuously, one version of a process has multiple children. For example, the 3 causal event has 41,000 children from which it has to narrow down to 50 versions. CA and GF have only 50 children for that causal event. Note that the numbers presented in the table do not include the time used to identify the version to recover.
In most cases, CA introduces little overhead relative to OC, yet it provides versions in cases where OC fails to do so. GF performs comparably in many cases, but sometimes imposes high run time overheads. Version-on-every-write practically always performs poorly both in terms of space and elapsed time. For recovery, however, CA and GF can indeed be a big win in terms of both the time to recover a particular version and the amount of data lost.
Several prior research projects have built versioning systems. We categorize these systems by the versioning algorithm that they use and discuss each class in turn. We begin with the version-on-every-write systems. CVFS  was designed with security in mind. Each individual write or small metadata change (e.g., atime updates) is versioned. The research focuses on methods to store and access old versions efficiently. We adopted the CVFS approach of using a journal to store old version data. Wayback  is a user-level versioning file system built on the FUSE framework. On a write call, Wayback logs the data being overwritten to an undo log before completing the write. Our version file format is similar to that of Wayback, but Wayback versions on every write while we version more selectively. The Repairable file system (RFS)  has functionality closest to ours. They record both causal data and save versions. They, however, collect causal data and data blocks separately, thus preventing them from taking advantage of causal information to version more selectively, leading to versioning on every write. They also have to reconcile the causal and versioning data using timestamps as they collect them separately.
Now we discuss systems that use open-close versioning. Elephant  is a versioning file system implemented in the FreeBSD 2.2.8 kernel. Their research focus is on providing users with a range of version retention policies. Versionfs  is a stackable versioning file system. Versionfs allows users to selectively version files and is focused on the ability to set space reclamation and version storage policies for files. Retention/reclamation policies are complementary to our work.
As we discussed in section 1, snapshots are another approach for versioning where an image of a file system is made periodically. Systems with snapshot functionality include AFS , Plan-9 , WAFL , , Venti , Ext3COW , Thresher , and Selective versioning secure disk system . Skippy  proposes metadata indexing schemes that can be used to quickly lookup previous snapshots of a database.
Several systems have used causal data to provide various functions. The Taser intrusion recovery system  logs all system calls and their arguments. In the event of administrative errors or intrusions, they perform causal analysis on the logged data to determine the actions that need to be done to recover the system. They explore various algorithms and policies that can be used to determine the exact operations to be performed during recovery. We can leverage all of these algorithms and policies in our work, applying them in an online setting. As future work, they plan to integrate their work with versioning file systems to reduce the disk space requirements and to improve scalability. Our work has continued where Taser stopped and has taken a step further by integrating both causal and versioning systems. BackTracker  logs all system calls and in the event of an intrusion, performs causality analysis to determine the root cause of an intrusion. Autobash  is a configuration debugging tool that leverages causal information to limit the amount of testing required.
Chapman et.al. , explore techniques for causal data pruning. Their approach for pruning is to remove duplicates (which we already perform) and factor out common subtrees in causal graphs. Another approach for pruning causality could be to merge the causal information of deleted temporary files into their causal ancestors. Space can also be reclaimed by deleting the versioning data of temporary files, where temporary files are intermediate nodes in a causal graph.
Finally, a number of versioning algorithms have been explored by the object oriented database (OODB) community. These algorithms are focused on aspects that are particular to OODBs such as ``how to propagate version changes of sub objects to composite objects?'', ``how to present a consistent view in the face of updates to different objects?'' , ``how to version classes as they change'' , etc.
Combining versioning and causal relationship data offers powerful capabilities above and beyond what each kind of system can do in isolation. Causality-based versioning ensures that we create meaningful versions of objects, facilitating better recovery from data-corrupting activities under concurrent workloads. While versioning introduces overheads between 1% and 25%, adding causal collection on top of versioning adds only an additional 5-6% overhead. The Cycle-Avoidance algorithm, which restricts itself to considering only per-object, local information during online operation provides superior versioning and recovery, at cost comparable to open-close.
Providing versioning in the context of PASS opens up future research possibilities in the areas of reproducibility and archival. PASS did not previously provide the ability to reproduce objects on the system, because they do not preserve all the necessary data. However, with versioning, the necessary data do exist. Versioning also produces objects that can easily be archived, and PASS provides the provenance to accurately describe those objects.
We thank Ethan Miller, our shepherd, and Margo Seltzer for repeated careful and thoughtful reviews of our paper. We thank Erez Zadok, Shankar Pasupathy, Jonathan Ledlie, and Uri Braun for their feedback on early drafts of the paper. We also thank Uri for validating the CA algorithm in our user level simulator. We thank the FAST reviewers for the valuable feedback they provided. This work was partially made possible thanks to NSF grant CNS-0614784.
This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 2002-2-1 (1.71)
Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996,
Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds.
Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore, Mathematics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney.
The command line arguments were:
latex2html -split 0 -show_section_numbers -local_icons paper.tex
The translation was initiated by on 2009-01-13