A significant amount of the large aggregate memory capacity of a network of workstations is often idle. Off-the-shelf systems provide access to this idle remote memory an order of magnitude faster than disk latencies. Therefore, many systems have been developed to make use of idle memory capacity, primarily for paging and caching.
Comer and Griffioen  introduced the remote memory model in which client machines that exhaust their local memory capacity paged to one of a set of dedicated remote memory servers. Each client's memory was private and inaccessible even if it was idle. Data migration between servers was not supported.
Felten and Zahorjan  enhanced the remote memory model to use any idle machine. Idle client machines advertise their available memory to a centralized registry. Active clients randomly chose one idle machine to page to. Like , data was not migrated among idle clients.
Dahlin et al.  describe an N-Chance Forwarding algorithm for a cooperative cache in which the file caches of many client machines are coordinated to form a global cache. N-Chance Forwarding tries to keep as many different blocks in global memory as it can by showing a preference for singlets (single copies of a block) over multiple copies. The cache only stores clean (unmodified) blocks. Thus, all file block modifications are written to the file server's disk. A similar approach is used in xFS and PAFS.
Feeley et al.  describe the Global Memory Service (GMS) system that integrates global memory management at the lowest level of the operating system enabling all system and higher-level software, including VM and the file cache, to make use of global memory. GMS uses per node page age information to approximate global LRU on a cooperative cache. Like N-Chance Forwarding, GMS's only stores clean file blocks and so all file writes must hit the file server's disk.
Hartman and Sarkar  present a hint-based cooperative caching algorithm. Previous work such as N-Chance Forwarding  and GMS  maintain facts about the location of each block in the cooperative cache. Although block location hints may be incorrect, the low overhead needed to maintain hints outweighs the costs of recovering from incorrect hints. All file modifications are written to the file server's disk so that if a hint is missing or incorrect, a client can always retrieve a block from the server. Using hints, block migration is done in a manner similar to that of GMS . Unlike MBFS, none of the above systems considers a client's CPU or memory load when deciding the movement or replacement of pages.
Franklin et al.  use remote memory to cache distributed database records and move data around using an algorithm similar in nature to that of N-chance forwarding. Client load was not considered by the data migration mechanism.
The Trapeze network interface  provides an additional order of magnitude improvement in remote memory latencies versus disk latencies by improving the network subsystem.