Assessing Privacy Risk with the IPA Triad

Mark Funk, Obscure Group


Introducing the IPA Triad, a generalized privacy framework consisting of three properties: Identity, Presence, and Activity. Like the CIA triad of information security, these properties provide a useful approach for modeling privacy risks in an applied problem space.

Mark Funk, Obscure Group

Mark Funk runs a small (“fun size”) security and privacy consultancy. Their experience involves nearly 15 years of product, systems, security, and privacy engineering. Loving big and small challenges alike, they have been employee number 1 / ~100 / ~1,000 / ~100,000 at tech companies across a wide variety of product verticals.
@inproceedings {257955,
author = {Mark Funk},
title = {Assessing Privacy Risk with the {IPA} Triad},
booktitle = {2020 {USENIX} Conference on Privacy Engineering Practice and Respect ({PEPR} 20)},
year = {2020},
url = {},
publisher = {{USENIX} Association},
month = oct,

Presentation Video